Skip to main content

Full text of "The monumental remains of noble and eminent persons : comprising the sepuchral antiquities of Great Britain"

See other formats


PRESENTED TO 



%i}e ©onicff "^Uniucrsiti), 1870, 

DV 

! ANDREW DICKSON WHITE, LL.D., 

First President of the University. 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LBRAHY 




3 1924 105 746 592 




'"iS 



Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924105746592 



THE 



ittonumental Hemains 



NOBLE AND EMINENT PERSONS, 



COMPKISING 



Cjbe ^eptacjral Antiquities of <2lreat Britain* 



ENGRAVED FBOM' DRAWINGS BY , 



EDWARD vBLORE, F.S.A. 



HISTORICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 



V 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY 

HARDING, LEPARD, AND CO. 

PALL MALL EAST. 
1826. 



LONBON : 

IRINTED BY THOMAS SATISON, WHITBFRIAKS. 



CONTENTS. 



I. ELEANOR, QUEEN OF EDWARD THE FIRST. 

Westminster Abbet/. - - - _ . 1290 

a. EFFIGY OF THE SAME. 

3. BRIAN FITZALAN, BARON OF BEDALE. 

Bedak Chwrch. .....' 1301 

4. AYMER DE VALENCE, EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

Westminster Abbey. ..... 1324 

5. SIR JAMES DOUGLAS. 

Douglas Chwrch. . . . - . 1331 

6. GERVASE ALARD, ADMIRAL OF THE CINQUE PORTS. 

Winchelsea Church. ... No date to this. 

7. PHILIPPA, QUEEN OF EDWARD THE THIRD. 

Westminster Abbey. .... - 1369 

8. EFFIGY of the SAME. 

9. THOMAS BEAUCHAMP, EARL OF WARWICK. 

BecmcJiamp Chapel, Warwiclc. . - - - 1370 

10. EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES. 

Canterhwry Cathedral. .... 1376 

II. EFFIGY OF THE SAME. 

12. KING EDWARD THE THIRD. 

Westminster Abbey. ..... 1377 

13. EFFIGY OF THE SAME. 

14. THOMAS HATFIELD, BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

Durham Cathedral. - - - - - 1381 

15. WILLIAM OF WYKHAM, BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. 

Winchester Cathedral. .... 1404 

16. EFFIGY OF THE SAME. 




Ir "Hi ii rllar 



Ln.jd-i^il HlfK-i 



IE1F1?I©T ©If OHJIEMIM IElLiaAH©lIio 




fubUskcd N'avJ.!S2/.,hy Hardly^/), Triphook ScLf^ard.FiTuhujry Square, Lcouiyri. 



ELEANOR, QUEEN OF ENGLAND, 

WIFE OF KING EDWARD THE FIRST. 

r 

Ob. 1290. 
monument at westminster. 



It is consolatory, in a work of this description, to turn some- 
times from the din of tilt and tournament, or the horrors of still 
more destructive warfare, (evils characteristic of, although not 
peculiar to, the ages concerning which we treat,) in order to con- 
template the milder virtues of the softer sex, and, as in the pre- 
sent instance, to register the name of one of the best of wives, 
and most amiable of sovereigns. 

, :^: Queen Eleanor was the only daughter of Ferdinand the Third, 
King of Castile and Leon, by Joan, daughter and heir to John 
Earl of Ponthieu, so that, in her mother's right, she was heir to 
that kingdom. She became the wife of Edward, during the 
life of his father, being married at . Bures, in Spain, in 1254 ; 
and a more truly happy union can hardly be recorded in the 
annals of royal wedlock. For thirty- six years she was never 
separated from her husband, attending him through all his cam- 
paigns, and sharing with him in all the difficulties and dangers 
of his military expeditions. Connected, with one of these expe- 
ditions is a very extraordinary anecdote, too romantic, indeed, 
to be literally true ; but still not unworthy of all consideration, 
as it shews the high estimation in which her character was held, 
when history does not scruple to magnify an act of attentive 
fondness into an exploit of more than heroic virtue : it should 

1 



ELEANOR, 

be added, that the story rests on the credit of Roderick San- 
tius, a Spanish prelate, who thus takes occasion to introduce 
the name of Queen Eleanor, in illustration of the conjugal fide- 
lity of his fair countrywomen. " Stat illud prseclarum non 
longe a nostra setate, sed sempiternis saeculis consecrandum fa- 
cinus. Ut enim vera perhibent annalia, cum Eduardus regis 
AngliBB primogenitus in domini sepulchrum transfretasset, fuis- 
setque in via proditorie a Mauro qupdam, gladio venenato per- 
cussus, et medicorum remediis non tarn allevaretur quam alli- 
garetur, tandem in Angliam sine salutis spe est reversus. Ejus 
itaque uxor, regis Hispanise" filia, novam atque inauditam, sed 
amore et pietate plenam, adhibuit medelam : plagas enim mariti 
toxico infectas, quae ipsius veneni vi claudi non poterant, lingua 
dietim lingebat, sugebatque humorem venenosum sibique liquo- 
rem dulcissimum. Cujus vigore, dicam verius fidei uxoriae vir- 
tute, sic omnem materiam veneni attraxit, ut integratis vulnerum 
cicatricibus ille plene curatus, ilia incolumis evaserit. Quid 
igitur" (he exclaims) " hujus mulieris fide rarius audiri ? quid 
mirabilius esse potest ? ut uxoris lingua fide et dilectione mari- 
tali peruncta, venena a dilecto marito expulerit, quae ab electo 
medico trahinon valuerunt; et quod plurima exquisitaque non 
efFeceruut medicanienta, una uxoris pietas explevit ?" (Histo- 
ri(E . HispaniciB Purs I. p. 297, ed. Franco/. 1579.^ English 
historians relate the circumstance, and, with greater probability, 
attribute the recovery of the prince to an antidote speedily 
administered, and the removal of the infected parts, which, 
together with the care and attention of his wife, quickly restored 
him to his former health. Edmond Parlett, a Cambridge writer, 
who was the author of a very curious history and character of 
the female sex, still remaining in manuscript, notices this anec- 
dote, but ascribes the cure to the skill and intrepidity of the 
English surgeons. He adds, and Hemingford corroborates the 
account, that when the wound was about to be examined, 

2 



QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 

Eleanor was only removed by force from the presence of her 
husband. " They were faineby stronge hand to carry her out, 
least she should have tranced and swowned away, and so dis- 
turbe them ; telling her in plaine tearmes, better she weep for 
a time, then all the kingdome of England for his losse." 

It is to Eleanor that the Welsh are indebted for their first 
prince, a native of Cambro-Britain. The Queen was delivered 
of Edward, afterwards the second King of that name, at Carnar- 
von Castle, and it was admirable policy in his father to conci- 
liate the inhabitants of this newly-conquered kingdom, by con- 
triving that their future prince should be their countryman. 
" The Welsh were highly joyed," says Walsingham, " when they 
heard that the young Prince was to be known by the title of 
Prince of Wales, reputing him to be their legitimate sovereign, 
since he had been born amongst them." 

The incidents in the life of this amiable Queen are few, but 
-history has handed down her name as coupled with all the do^ 
mestic virtues, and recorded her as a rare example of active and 
useful benevolence. "She was," says Holinshed, almost fol- 
lowing the words of Walsingham, " a godlie and modest Prin- 
cesse, full of pitie, and one that shewed much fauour to the 
English nation ; readie to releeue euerie man's greefe that sus- 
teined wrong, and to make them freends that were at discord, 
so farre as in hir laie." Walsingham adds, that her ears were 
always open to the complaints of the oppressed; that she dis* 
couraged every act of tyranny on the part of the nobles over 
their dependents, a vice too common in the days of feudal 
power;, and that she was, as it were, the pillar of the realm. 

Edward appears to have returned the love of his amiable 
consort with corresponding affection, and to have mourned the 
affliction of her loss with the most poignant sincerity. This 
event happened on the twenty-seventh of November, 1290, 
whilst she was accompanying her lord into Scotland : she was 

3 



ELEANOR, 

seized with a fatal disorder near Herdely, in Nottinghamshire, 
although some writers would erroneously have it at Grantham, 
in Lincolnshire, and being carried to the house of a neighbour- 
ing gentleman, expired, to the great grief of her husband and 
the whole nation. Edward immediately returned with the 
corpse to Westminster, having previously deposited her bowels 
in the Chapel dedicated to the Virgin, in the Cathedral Church 
of Lincoln, where a cenotaph, long since destroyed, was erected 
to mark the spot ; on which was placed an effigy of the Queen, 
finely executed in copper or latten, gilt, and round it the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

-j- Hie sunt sepulta vicera Alionore quondam Regine Anglie, Uxoris Regis 
Edvardi Filii Regis Henrici. Cujus anime propitietur Deus. Amen. Pater 
noster. 

The body was slowly removed to Westminster, the King 
attending as chief mourner ; and wherever the corpse rested, 
in its progress from Lincolnshire to the place of its interment, 
Edward erected so many crosses, with a statue of the Queen 
on each, as monuments of his affection, and in order, according 
to Walsingham, that all passengers might be reminded to breathe 
a prayer for her soul. Of these crosses, which Gough very 
justly remarks, are so many memorials of conjugal love, unpa- 
ralleled in any other kingdom, three only remain ; namely, at 
Geddington, Northampton, and Waltham. Rymer has pre- 
served the King's letter to the Abbot of Clugni, requesting 
that mass, and the several offices for the dead, might be per- 
formed for the rest of her soul. This document, which speaks 
of his extreme attachment to her whilst living, an attachment 
which, he says, death Jias not diminished, is dated at Ashridge, 
January 4, 1291 . " She was buryed," says Fabian, " at West- 
mynster in the chapell of seynt Edwarde, at ye fete of Henry 
the thirde, where she hathe ii wexe tapers brennynge upon her 

4 



QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 

tumbe both daye and nyght, whiclie so hath cotynued syne the 
day of her buryinge to this present daye." This account ap- 
pears in the first edition of Fab yan, printed by Pynson in 
1516, as well as that by Rastell, 1533. In the subsequent 
copies of 1542 and 1559, the custom having in the mean time 
been discontinued, the editors have thought proper to omit the 
account of it altogether.. 

Queen Eleanor's monument is placed on the north side of the 
Confessor's chapel, under one of the arches separating it from 
the side aisle of the choir. It consists of an altar tomb of grey 
marble, having the sides and two ends divided into a series of 
sixteen ornamental niches, six on either side, and two at each 
end. These compartments, which are highly ornamented, con- 
tain each a shield, which is suspended from foliage of oak and 
vine intermingled, and on every shield, alternately, are the arms 
of England, — three lions passant-guardant; of Castile and 
Leon, first and fourth a castle, second and third a lion rampant ; 
and of Ponthieu, three bendlets within a bordure. Oji a table 
of brass gilt, ornamented in diapers, with small lozenges, in 
which are engraven the arms of Castile and Leon, alternately, 
reposes the effigy of the Queen, over whose head is an angular 
canopy of metal, which has once been richly gilt. Round the 
verge of the table is an inscription in raised letters ; a part of 
it only is now visible, the remainder being concealed by the 
sculptures of Henry the Fifth's chapel ; but we have thought it 
best to print it as given by Sandford and Stebbing. 

;Sf\% ' iLiE • niEY FN^iiF • wm. • mum^ 

3B1E . 1LE • WEW • fFM • %^ • W^EM - ®|?^ • iJHEBetE 

On the northern side is a screen of wrought iron, of singular 

5 



ELEANOR, 

device, representing scroll-work foliage, with the heads of 
animals beneath. Under this, oij the sub-basement of the 
tomb, are the very faint traces of some ancient painting. This 
was much obliterated in Dart's time, but enough could- then be 
collected from it to ascertain that the subject was a sepulchre; 
at the feet of which were two monks praying ; and at the head, 
a knight, armed, with a female figure holding in her arms a 
child. Over this was engraven — 

Regina Alionora, Censors Edvardi Primi,fuit Alionora 1290. 

Disce mori. 

And on a tablet hanging near the tomb were the following 
verses, which have long since disappeared, although visible 
when Camden and Weever made their collections. 

Nobilis Hispani jacet hie soror iaclita Regis, 

Eximii censors Aleonora thori, 
Edwardi primi. Wallorum principis uxor, 

Cui pater Henricus tertius Anglus erat. 
Hanc ills uxorem gnato petit; omine princeps 

Legati munus suscipit ipse bono. 
Alphonso fratri placuit f'elix Hymeneus 

Germanam Edwardo nee sine dote dedit : 
Dos prseclara fuit, nee tali indigna marito, 

Pontivo prineeps munere dives erat. 
Foemina consilio prudens, pia, prole beata, 

Auxit amickiis, auxit honore virum. 

Disce mori. 

Which was thus Englished, on the same tablet, for the bene- 
fit of the unlearned reader : 

Queen Elenor is here interr'd. Whose father Henry, just the third, 
A worthy, noble dame. Was sure an English wrght. 

Sister unto the Spanish king. Who crav'd her wife unto his son : 
Of royal blood and fame. The Prince himself did go 

King Edward's wife, first of that name. On that embassage luckily 
And Prince of Wales by right ; As chief, with many rao. 

6 



QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 

This knot of linked marriage For Pontive was the marriage gift, 
Her brother Alphonso lik'd, A dowry rich and great. 

And so 'tween sister and this Prince, A woman both in council wise, 
The marriage was upstrik'd. Religious, fruitful, meek, 

The dowry rich and royal was. Who did encrease her husband's friends, 
For such a Prince most meet. And larg'd his honours eke. 

Learn to die. 

The statue of Queen Eleanor is an excellent specimen of art, 
both, in design and execution. The features are those qf a 
young and beautiful female ; the countenance, open, mild, in- 
genuous, and noble. The head reposes on a double cushion, 
decorated with the arms of Castile and Leon, and bears a 
coronet of simple form, consisting of fleurs-de-lis and trefoils, 
from which the hair flows, in large ringlets, over each shoulder. 
The hands are very gracefully disposed, the left passing over 
the bosom, whilst the right formerly contained a sceptre, which 
now no longer remains, although the groove in which it once was 
fixed plainly indicates the original design. The drapery is long 
and flowing, very tastefully arranged, but entirely devoid of 
embellishment, although a number of small holes on the margin 
of the mantle, and round the extremities of the loose sleeves, 
indicate that some valuable ornament was originally attached to 
these vestments ; similar holes are visible on the coronet, as well 
as on the cord connecting the mantle, and it is probable they also 
were once filled with precious and costly deposits. We wish these 
had been the only depredations committed on this monument ; 
but not only the shafts, by which the canopy was supported, 
but two pinnacles, which sprung from some beautifully carved 
heads at either point, have been torn away. A portion of the 
south side of the tomb is concealed by the monument of King 
Henry the Fifth, which has been built up contiguously, and 
which, by overhanging the lower portion of the effigy, has ren- 
dered it extremely difficult to obtain a tolerable view of that 

7 



ELEANOR, ;QUEEN OF ENGLAND. 

part. In addition to the altar tomb, already described, we have 
made mention of a sub-basement, which is rendered necessary 
on that side towards the northern side-aisle of the choir, in con- 
sequence of its being considerably lower than the Confessor's 
chapel:, viewed in this direction. Queen Eleanor's monument has 
an appearance of extreme altitude. The canopy surmounting the 
whole is of wood. It is decidedly of much later design than 
the rest of the tomb ; and having been constructed to fit the 
space between the pier of the arch under which the monument 
is placed, arid the contiguous portion of that of King Henry the 
Fifth, it is reasonable' to conjedture,- that it was thrown across 
at the time in which King Henry's monument was erected; nor 
was it then effected without materially injuring the simplicity 
and chariacter of that how under consideration. 

8 




T^T^jfni iTy ^ow ' Blac 



Ji.rL^raved "ty H.Le Eeuc. 



in Westmmster 






IiiMishiid.MoTc\lJ825.tySardi7ig Tuphaok & I^ard-.I'uishiiTy Stjuarc.Lmdm.. 



BRIAN FITZ-ALAN, 

BARON OF BEDALE. 

Ob. 1301. 

MONUMENT AT BEDALE. 

Of the illustrious house of Fitzalan of Bedale, few particulars 
have descended to us, and the little that can now be gleaned 
from the industrious researches of former antiquaries relates 
rather to the genealogical descent of its several members^ 
than to their characters and exploits. It is, indeed, no easy- 
matter to trace the heads of the family in regular succession, 
for Dugdale and Gale diflFer very materially in the order 
they observe, whilst the interchange of the same Christian 
name from father to son, (for they are all Brian's or Alan's) 
through several generations, tends, in no slight degree, to per- 
plex the genealogical inquirer. 

We cannot, amid the conflicting opinions of two eminent 
antiquaries, do better than follow the example of the late 
historian of Richmondshire ; and, accordingly, believing Gale 
to be, in this instance, the most correct historian of the two, 
we shall adopt his pedigree in his own words; and we do 
this the rather, because his account of the Fitzalans comprises 
all that can be said of the subject of our present engraving. 

Brianus, filius Alani, genus suum nobilissimum duxit a Briano 
filio natu secundo Alani tertii Britanniae Ducis et Comitis 
Richmondiae. 

Patrem habuit Alanum Briani istius filium, matrem Agnetem 
de Bedale, uti vocatur in antiqua carta, olim in turri Beatae 
Mariae Ebor. hodie inter coUectiones Dodsworthianas in musseo 
Harleyano deposita. 

1 



BRIAN FITZALAN, 

Alano tertio, Richmondiae Comiti, fuit quidam ScoUandus 
Dapifer, idemque Dominus de Bedale: illi sine dubio nomen 
suum debet aulse magnae de Scaularid in castro Richmondiensi : 
habuit quoque filium nomine Brianum, sed qui sine prole 
masculina discessisse videtur, relicta filia nomine Constantia, 
forsan etiam et altera. 

Cum vero Brianus noster filius Alani stationem in magna 
aula Scoulandi intra castrum Richmondise, ScoUandi terras 
apud villam de Bedale et Agnetem de Bedale uxorem habuerit, 
non possumus non suspicari Agnetem hanc vel filiam vel Scol- 
landi neptem, invito licet Dugdalio, qui earn Bertrami Haget 
fuisse natam velit, et Alano marito patrimonium S'coUandi 
Eboracense detulisse quemadniodum et Constantia ScoUandi 
neptis haereditatem suam in agro Lincolniensi, Radulpho filio 
Robert! de Goseberchurch conjugi itidem suo advexerat. 

Brianus hie liberam obtinuit warrenam in omnibus terris suis 
2do regis Johannis, fuitque Vicecomes Ebor. 22 Hen. III. De 
tempore autem mortis ejus nobis parum constat. 

Dedit huic Dugdalius Brianum filium, quem tamen Brianum 
filium Alani vocat, omisso interim patre ejus, qui revera fuit 
Briani secundi filius, et nomen habuit Alani, uti patet a con- 
cessione ferise et mercati apud manerium suum de Bedale, quam 
obtinuit 35 Hen. HI. 

Fuit itaque Brianus ille filius Alani qui Edwardum primum 
anno regni sui quinto in Cambriensi bello comitabatur, et in 
quo defecit illustris familiae stirps mascula, Briani secundi 
ex filio nepos, nequaquam filius. 

Summis honoribus et favore fuit apud principem ilium invic- 
tissimum et ab eo primum unus e custodibus regni Scotiae con- 
stitutus, ita se in hoc munere gessit, ut brevi postea sibi soli 
provinciam illam demandari meruerit. 

Nee tantum in Scotia strenuam riegi suo operam navavit, sed 
ad parliamentum summonitus 23° ejus anno per septennium 

2 



BARON OF BEDALE. 

inter barones Anglos ei a concilio fuit, donee ex hac luce 
migrans, sepulchrum habuit cum conjuge in ala australi 
ecclesise suae de Bedale, sub mausoleo variis eoloribus auro- 
que, olim pulcherrime obducto, quod tamen hodie ad murum 
ejus borealem, viginti circiter abhinc annis, amotum conspi- 
citur. 

Nomen uxoris periit, sed filiae eorum Matildis et Katharina, 
Gilberto de Stapilton, et Johanni Grey de Rotherfield, nuptae, 
paternam suam haereditatem inter familias illas diviserunt." 

We have adopted Gale's statement, because, as we have 
before intimated, his reasoning appears conclusive ; but it is 
only proper to observe, that much of the foregoing information 
respecting our Brian Fitzalan is derived from the antiquary of 
Warwickshire. Fitzalan 's attendance upon Edward the First, 
during his expedition into Wales ; his appointment to act, first, 
as one of that king's vice-gerents, and, lastly, as sole governor 
of Scotland ; his summons to parliament amongst the barons of 
the realm, in the twenty-third year of Edward I. ; together 
with his failure of male issue, and the subsequent marriages of 
his two daughters and coheiresses ; are all taken from Dugdale's 
printed account of the Fitz- Alans of Bedale, in his Baronage. 

It is singular enough, that Dugdale and his corrector derived 
their information from the same source. In the Manuscript 
Collections of Roger Dodsworth, at Oxford, (Gale quotes from 
them as reposited in the Harleian library,) we have met 
with the following pedigree, which we now give as a mat- 
ter of curiosity rather than evidence. Dodsworth's error 
seems to have consisted in his deriving the family in a direct 
line from Brian, the son of ScoUand, who died without male 
issue. 

3 



BRIAN FITZALAN, 



=j= Scollandus Dapifer Alani Co. Riclim, 



Brianus fil. Scollandi =f 
dedit 3 carucal. terrse in 
Fors abb'ie de Jeruall. 



Helia fil 
Scoland. 



Alaiius _ Agnes mater 



filius Brian! 
21 H. 2. 



r 



Brianus =f 
filius Alani 



Brian}. 



Alicia uxor, soror 

Gilberti fil. 
Gilbert! Hansard. 



Alanus filius -p 
Briani de Bedale 
31 H. 3. 



Soror 

et coheres Galfredi 
Haget. 

6 H. 3. 



Williis de 
Neuell. 



Ysabella, 



Brianus filius Alani. 
Sum. ad parliamentum 
23 E. 1. 

Confirm, donacionem 
Dni Briani filii Alani 
avi sui. Fuit custos 
regni Scotie 25 E. 1. 



• • • • de = Agnes. = Thomas 
Stapletbn Sheffeld. 

defunct. 2 E. 3. 2 E. 3. 



Johgs de =f! Caterina filia et una hereduni 
Gray. Briani filii Alani d6 Bedale. 



The monument of Brian Fitzalan stands under a window 
of the north aisle of the Church of Bedale, to which place 
it was removed, together with other ancient monuments, in 
a recent arrangement of the church, from a chapel at the east 
end of the south aisle of the nave, which, from the style of that 

4 



BARON OF BEDALE. 

part of the building, appears to have been constructed with a 
view to its reception. It is entirely of stone. The figure is much 
superior, in the design and execution, to the generality, of effigies 
of the same period, and the canopy over the head is simple and 
elegant. The mode adopted in this effigy of representing an 
armed figure bare-headed, is by no means common, neither is 
the loose short sleeve attached to the surcoat, and enveloping 
the arm almost to the waist, of frequent occurrence. -The sur- 
coat is bound round the waist with a small girdle, from whence 
it falls over the thighs in light and graceful folds, reaching al- 
most to the feet. On his left arm the Lord of Bedale bears along 
pointed shield charged with the arms of the family, Barry of six. 
The mode of attaching the shield to the arm by broad straps with 
buckles is well explained. The sword-belt is decorated' with 
leopards' heads executed with great spirit. On each side of 
the canopy are the mutilated remains of an angel with arms 
extended, as if to give it support. At the feet of the effigy, are the 
remains of a lion, and on each side, a priest seated, holding 
in his hands an open book ; these are also much dilapidated. 
The right leg of the effigy, from the calf, is broken off", and the 
hands have suffered considerable injury : in every other respect 
it is perfect ; and, within the memory of persons now liv- 
ing, the original painting and gilding of the figure remain- 
ed quite vivid ; so rapid;, however, has ■ been the progress of 
destruction, that not a vestige of colour ca"n now be traced. 
The statues within the niches, on the sides of the tomb, have 
suffered so much as to render it a matter of great difficulty to 
make them out satisfactorily; added to which circumstance, 
the lower portion of them is buried under the present pavement 
of the church, which has been l:g,ised to half the height of the 
side of the tomb. The first figure evidently represents a war- 
rior. The second may be intended for a female saint in an 
attitude of devotion, and holding a musical instrument in 

5 



BRIAN FITZALAN, 

her hands ; the lines of this figure are very graceful. Under 
the centre canopy is a figure extended on a couch, or bier, 
whilst an angel in the clouds is represented as receiving the 
departed spirit, (personified in a small figure encircled in 
drapery,) and conveying it to heaven. The fragment of a 
canopy which succeeds this, proves, that, in removing this 
monument, no attention was paid to the original arrangement 
of the sides. The two next figures, although nearly obliterated, 
are evidently intended for the Virgin and infant Jesus ; and 
a third figure, still more defaced, is seated, with one hand 
raised, as in the act of conferring the benediction. The figures, 
which decorated the other sides of the tomb, have either 
been destroyed, or are hid beneath the modern pews with which 
the remaining part of the aisles are filled. The other ancient 
figures which appear in the plate in connection with that of 
Brian Fitzalan, although we dare not attempt to appropriate 
them, possess considerable antiquarian interest, and must not 
pass entirely unnoticed. That at the feet represents a female 
of an earlier age, but of extraordinary beauty. The head 
is bound with a broad fillet of oak leaves in form of a tiara, 
a piece of drapery is carried over the head as a veil, and 
descends in folds over the shoulders, leaving an opening to 
display the reticulated termination to the head-dress. The 
body is disposed with a slight inclination to one side, having 
the right leg advanced a little forward. In the hands is a long 
scroll, whilst the drapery of the robe is drawn up, and passing 
in a knot under the arm, descends in large and well arranged 
folds, terminating considerably below the feet, which are 
visible beneath the drapery. Beneath is a dog, and on each 
side of the head are seen the mutilated remains of an angel. 

Immediately behind this female figure is that of a knight 
completely armed ; his body is covered with the close short 
garment called the cyclas, which terminates a little above the 

6 



BARON OF BEIXALE. 

knees, in a row of ornaments, and falls in loose straight folds, 
somewhat lower on the back of the legs. On his left arm he 
bears a broken shield, charged with a chevron between three 
roses, and at his feet is a hound couchant. The gorget is 
of double link mail, and is a rare example of that species 
of armour. The gauntlets are of that early species which 
immediately succeeded the gloves of mail. The body has a slight 
turn, and the legs are so disposed as to give an idea of advanc- 
ing. The gambeson, which protects the body, is represented as 
somewhat longer than the cyclas, by which it is covered, and 
makes its appearance from underneath that vestment, a little 
above the knees. TJiis effigy exhibits an interesting specimen 
of the transition style between the disuse of the chain, and the 
adoption of plate, armour. 

At the head of this figure, and immediately behind that of 
Brian Fitzalan, is another of a knight, in complete armour, of the 
middle of the fifteenth century, but not possessing sufficient 
interest to deserve particular description. All the above 
effigies are in stone. 

Besides those already described, the church of Bedale con- 
tains other monuments of great interest and antiquity ; but in 
the same arrangement of the church, by which, such as we 
have hitherto mentioned, have all been confounded together, 
the others have been entirely buried under the new pews, a 
circumstance which may, with great propriety, be mentioned, 
in the hope of inducing their removal, from their present ob- 
scurity, to some more appropriate situations in the church. 
One of these, an ecclesiastic of the family of Fitzalan, is 
represented in Gale; and, judging from the plate given by 
that intelligent antiquary, as well as the description afforded 
by persons resident on the spot, it is in airprobabibility equal, 
iTnot superior, to any of those now noticed. 

7 




i!ii We.i?tTniTiii]i3il"Px Abbey; 



-i'j^Z9.J!'''!''.' Zy Nurdnw. Tripluj'fl- K- L /viv! ?T,.'-h./r</ SiihM.reJ.nnAi.ii. 




AYMER DE VALENCE, 

EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

DIED 1324. 

MONUMENT AT WESTMINSTER* 

A u DO MA RE or Aymer de Valence, third son of William d0 
Valence, succeeded his father in the Earldom of Pembroke in 
1296, his two elder brothers, John and William, dying before 
their father. Of his early years we know nothing. The first 
we hear of him in public life is^ that he accompanied King 
Edward the First in his expedition into Flanders, in the 
twenty-fifth year of that monarch's reign ; that he was appointed 
a comimissioner, to ratify an agreement between the King and 
Florence, Earl of Holland, touching certain auxiliary forces 
with which the latter had agreed to supply the English mo^ 
narch ; and that he was also sent as ambassador, to treat con? 
cerning a truce between Edward and the King of France. 

He appears, however, to have been principally concerned in 
the border wars between England and Scotland. Having 
previously obtained a grant, of the Castles of Selkirke and 
Tresqiiair, and of the borough of Pebbles, he was, in the thirtyf 
fourth of Edward I. sent as guardian of the marches towards 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, having the entire command of the forces 
that had been raised, in order to repel Robert Bruce, and 
revenge the murder of John Comyn, of Badenock. The instru- 
ment of appointment is preserved in the Foedera, and in it he is 
Myled, " dilectum consanguineum et fidelem nostrum, locun^ 

1 



AYMER DE VALENCE, 

nostrum tenentem et capitaneum super omnes homines ad arma, 
tam equites, quam pedites," &c. 

It was during this expedition, that Aymer de Valence gave a 
decisive check to Bruce by a surprise at Methven, the parti- 
culars of which are to be collected from the several historians 
of that period. Aymer had lately taken up his quarters at 
Perth, where, with an inconsiderable body of English troops, 
he awaited the arrival of King Edward, who, with the Prince of 
Wales, was advancing against the Scotch. Before this junction 
of the royal army could take place, Bruce appeared before 
Perth with a body of horsemen, and challenged the Earl of 
Pembroke to' come forth and try their respective strength. 
To this summons Aymer returned for answer, that he would 
gladly accept the challenge, and fight him on the following 
morning. Upon receiving this reply, Bruce retired to Mfethven, 
confident in an opinion that his enemies would not disturb him 
that night; but, while himself and his army were refreshing 
themselves in fancied security, Aymer made a vigorous attack 
up©n them, and put the whole to rout. Bruce exerted himself, 
in this unforeseen difl5<:ttlty, with his usual energy, and displayed 
great valour, but in vain : nearly all his foUbwers were killed or 
taken, and he himself escaped with difiiculty, having been 
thrice beaten from his horse, and as often replaced by'the aid 
of Simon Fraser, a soldier, who, for bodily strength and invin- 
cible courage, has been compared, by the Scotch, to their 
favourite Wallace. It is, indeed, recorded, that Bruce owed 
his safety, in great measure, to a disguise ; himself and his men 
being severally provided with white linen shirts, which they 
wore over their armour, and which prevented their leader from 
being recognized by the English, many of whom would other- 
wise have known him. Aymer de Valence pursued Bruce, and 
supposing that he would take refiige in the castle of Kildrummy, 
in Marr, attacked and gained possession of that fortress, but 

2 



EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

"discerning none but his wife and Nigel de Bruce, his btrpther, 
there, he hanged up Nigel, and all the res.t who were with him, 
fexbeptihg her,'',v, So Dugdale, who, having copied this passage 
from Walsingham, goes on to notice the deaths of Bruce's 
brother, and his companions, as an act of extreme cruelty on the 
part of the Earl of Pembroke. When we remember that Bruce 
had slain De Valence's .near relative by rftarriage, (for. Comyn 
had espousedihis «ister Joan,) and this at the very altar, we may 
excuse somis degree of severity towards the brother of his 
inuxdereif,. .by way, of retaliation. Praiseworthy the deed 
cannot be ; but, taking into consideration the times and the 
persons opposed.,jta each other, it was at least natural, . It so 
bappens,^^ howeve^, that the Earl .was altogether innocent — for 
having, given information to the King of the rank and quality of 
his prisoners,. Edward commanded them to be conveyed i to 
Berwick, and jdespatched justices thither from Lanercost in 
'Cumberland, where he. then was, ^' in order to try Bruce and his 
accomplices ; and by virtue of their sentence it was, that Nigel 
and his companions were executed. ju. '■ 

The EarLof Pembroke was conspicuous among tho^e of the 
English nobility, who resented the .arrogance and opposed the 
pretiensions of Piers iGayeston, When Edward was. on his 
death bed, Aymer de Valence was one ,of the peers to whose 
care and good counsel he committed his. son ; and, foreseeing 
the evils likely, to accrue from Gaveston being a second time 
received into intimacy, enjoined him on no account to suflFer 
him again to approach the Prince. The, offended favourit? did 
not, as may be supposed, = regard his opponent with much com- 
placency, and Walsingham relates, that he called him, by way 
of derision, Joseph the Jew, in allusion to his tall stature and 
pallid countenance. It is probable, however, that when he 
found Edward resolved on the recall of his minion, he consi- 
dered it more politic to withdraw his opposition ; for the name 

3 ^ 



AYMER DE VALENCE, 

of Adomara de Valencia is affixed to the instrument by which 
the King improvidently bestowed upon Gaveston the entire 
possessions of Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, together with that 
title. Gaveston, indeed, seems to have abandoned, for a time, 
his usual character, and to have deceived those who most ob- 
jected to him. In the extracts from a contemporary Chronicle 
preserved by Leland, (Collectanea i. 784.) we are told that 
"Peter Gaverston then (on the acquisition of the lands and title 
of Cornwall) became noble, liberal, and" gentil in summe 
faschions : " but, continues the historian, " after, ful of pride and 
disdayne, of the which the nobilles of England tooke great 
despite." This may be some apology for the Earl of Pem- 
broke's seeming inconsistency; but these hopes of reformation 
were of short duration — the insolence, rapacity, and mis- 
conduct of Gaveston were again too soon apparent, and the 
indignation of the whole kingdom being roused against him, 
Edward was compelled to yield to the just demands of his 
barons, seconded by the clergy, and to dismiss his favourite 
from his presence. Upon this occasion, De Valence was one of 
the eight Earls included in the twenty persons chosen to see 
the ordinationes (as they are called in a MS. written at that 
period) against Gaveston executed. On the second exile of 
this favourite, in 1311, the Earl was again nominated, t6gether 
with the Earls of Gloucester and Hereford, to petition the 
King, in the name of the twenty " ordinatores," that all the 
relations and connexions (" parentes et propinqui") of Ga- 
veston should be removed from the King's household, and be 
rendered incapable of holding office in future. In 1312, upon 
news reaching the Earl of Lancaster, that Gaveston was left by 
the King in the castle of Scarborough, he sent the Earls of 
Pembroke and "Warren, together with Henry de Percy, and an 
armed force, to besiege the castle, which they did, and by 
certain oaths of security induced Gaveston to put himself into 

4 



EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

their hands. But, as they were journeying towards the South,.; 
intending to carry him to Wallingford, they halted at Dedding' 
ton, between Banbury and Daventry, whither the Earl of 
Warwick came, and, as some say, forcibly, or, as others report^- 
by collusion, (and it is certain that De Valence was absent on 
the pretext of business; or, as some say, to visit his Countess, 
who was in the neighbourhood) carried him towards Warwick, 
and stabbed and beheaded him on Blacklow hill, near that 
^ity. 

The Earl of Pembroke, in the seventh of Edward II., was 
constituted warden and lieutenant of all Scotland, till the 
arrival of the King ; after which, he was present at the dis 
astrous battle of Bannockburn. The MS. authority jiist al- 
luded to, in giving an account of this fatal engagement, appears 
to cast some suspicion on his courage or fidelity. *' Insuper 
comes de Penbrok, Henricus de Bellomonte et multi magnates 
Cordetenus Pharisei, a certamine recesserunt." Another Chro- 
nicle, among the Cotton MS S., says that he ran away as fast 
as his legs would carry him, "in pedibus suis evasit ex acie, et 
cum Valensibus fugientibus se salvavit." There seems, however, 
no great disgrace in seeking safety by flight when defeat was 
inevitable, and the whole army pursued a similar course. 

In the tenth of Edward, 1317, De Valence was sent, with 
other noblemen and prelates, on an embassy to the court of 
Rome; on which occasion, a singular disaster befel him.' 
Leland, from the Scala Chronica, thus relates it : " Eymer de 
Valence, counte of Penbroke, goyng toward the court of 
Rome was taken by one John de la Moiller, a Burgonlion, and 
sent to the Emperor, and raunsomid for 20 M. poundes of 
sylver : by cause the saide John allegid, that he servid the 
King of England, and had not his wages." Edward, it seems, 
took eviery measure to extricate his dear kinsman and xioun- 
sellor from the effects of this reprisal. He wrote letters to the 

5 



AYMER DE VALENCE, 

Kings of France and Bohemia, to the Dukes of Lorraine and 
Burgundy, and to divers Other princes, for their aid and inter- 
ference; but, if we may believe the authority now quoted, 
was unable to effect his delivery without a very considerable 
pecuniary sacrifice. From the official document in Rymer, it 
appears that the Earl was captured on his return from,— not 
as he was going to — Rome ; and, from the circumstance of there 
beitig others concerned in this detention, "quidem Johannes de 
la Moiliere cum aliis malefactoribus, ipsius complicibus," we 
may suppose that the assault was pi:emeditiated, and that other 
causes, besides those alleged by John de Moiliere, occasioned 
so unusual an outrage on the person of an ambassador. 

In the thirteenth of Edward, he had the custody of the realm 
committed to himy when the King was about to leave England, 
in order to do homage to the French monarch, for the Dukedom 
of Aquitain, and other possessions which he held of that prince : 
a journey that was never accomplished. 

Holinshed says that in 1322, " Aimir, earle of Penbroke, 
being returned home from a parliament holden at Yorke, was 
arrested by certeine Kiiights, sent with authority therevnto 
from the King, who brought him backe to York, where at 
length thorough. suit «f certeine noble-men, he was vpon his 
oth taken to be afaithfuU subiect, and in consideration of a fine 
which he paied to the* King,' set at libertie. The occasion of 
his imprisonment came for that he was accused and detected to 
be a secret favourer of the baron's cause against the Spensers 
in time of the late troubles." . 

Upon the capture of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, at BorrougH* 
bridge, in the fifteenth of Edward IL, the Earl of Pembroke 
was one of the Lords who gave sentence against him, and re-* 
ceived, as his reward, the manor of Higham Ferrers in North- 
amptonshire, together with a considerable portion of the lands 
of Robert de Holland, attainted at the same time. Dugdale, 

6" 



EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

from the Peter-House Chronicle, supposes that he soon lost his 
life in consequence of the part he took in Lancaster's con- 
demnation ; but there seems no reason to doubt the commonly 
received tradition, that he perished in a tournament given by 
himself in honour of his nuptials with Maria, daughter of Guy 
de Chastilian, Earl of St. Paul, who was his third wife, and is 
better known as the foundress of Pembroke Hall, in Cambridge. 
"Sir Aymer of Valaunce, Erie of Penbroke, went over in to 
Fraunce with Quene Isabelle, and there he was sodenly mor- 
derid in a pryvi sege, by the vengeaunce of God : for he con- 
sentid to the death of S. Thomas of Lancastre." That this 
privy siege was the tilting match alluded to, seems, in some 
measure, corroborated by the conclusion of a metrical life of 
the Earl of Pembroke a,mong the Cotton MSS. 

" Mors Comitem comitum necuit, mors ipsa cruenta 
Ipsa cmore riibrum campum facit et lubicundum." 

It may appear remarkable that we have made no use of, 
or quotations from, this piece of MS. biography; but the 
omission will be easily pardoned, when we announce, that 
throughout more than five hundred lines of exaggerated pane- 
gyric, not a single incident, anecdote, or trait of character will 
be found. The author calls himself " Jacobus Nicholaus de 
Dacia, scholaris dominee Marise de Sancto Paulo, Comitissge de 
Pembrok ;" meaning, probably, that he was one of the first 
members of Pemibroke Hall ; and a very ingenious person he 
must have been. He has written a long poem, in two parts, upon 
a person of whom he knew nothing, and was evidently unable 
to procure the slightest information. The whole sum and 
substance of his composition may be comprised in the two 
following lines, which, in default of any othier, must serve as 
the Earl's epitaph, 

7 



AYMER DE VALENCE, 

" Quem petra parva tegit, quondam Comes extitit ille, 
Qui super astra regit, donet sibi' gaudia niille." 

The monument of Ayraer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, ad- 
joins the altai-, on the north side of the choir of Westminster 
Abbey, under an arch dividing that part of the building from 
the side aisle, and between those of Edmund Crouchback, Earl 
of Lancaster, and his Countess, Aveline. It is of stonej and 
equally finished on both sides ; but the elevation in the side 
aisle is much greater than towards the choir, inconsequence of 
the floor of the latter being raised much above the level of the 
former. The general design of the monument will be best 
understood by a reference to the annexed plate ; but it is quite 
impossible, either in an engraving, or by description, to do full 
justice to the extraordinary beauty of the detail of every part 
of this most interesting relique. The effigy of the Earl reposes, 
cross-legged, on the summit of the tomb, with the face and 
hands bare, and the latter elevated and joined, as in prayer. 
The rest of the figure is clad in the prevailing armour of the 
period ; a hauberk of mail, reaching down to the knees, and 
covering the arms to the wrists, with a similar protection 
for the legs and feet. Over the body is a surcoat, embla- 
zoned red, and striped as the arms of De Valence. This is 
bound round the waist by a small ornamental belt, and de- 
scends below the knees in straight folds. On his left side ^a 
large sword, the hilt of which is now gone, is suspended from 
a broad belt, which passes obliquely round the body : there is 
a smaller belt across the shoulders, which plainly shews that, 
at some former .period, a shield was suspended, but of this not 
the smallest vestige remains. At the head, which rests on a 
double cushion, are two small figures in flowing drapery, 
kneeling on oneknee, and supporting. the fragment of a third, 
intended, no doubt, to represent angels supporting the ^ soul in 

8 



EARL OF' PEMBROKE. 

its ascent to heaven. It is impossible for any, thing to be more» 
elegant and graceful than the, disposition of the drapery and the 
lines of these figures. At the feet of the Earl is a lion cou- 
chant. 

The chain mail, of which the armour is composed, consists of 
small rings, which, instead of being carved, have been stamped 
upon a soft adhesive composition applied to the stone, and now 
nearly of equal hardness. 

Both sides of the tomb are divided into eight corapartmentSi 
each, compartment surmounted by a rich canopy, and contain- 
ing the mutilated remains of a small figure. The intervals be- 
tween the points of the canopies are filled with an ornamented 
circle, each containing a shield of arms, indicating, no doubt, 
the illustrious individual represented by the small figure below. 

It is impossible to speak too highly of these figures. The 
attitudes are various and graceful, and the folds of the drapery 
admirably adjusted to display the lines of the figures. The 
spandrils of the principal arch over the effigy, are filled with 
rich foliage, beautifully designed and admirably executed, and 
the trefoil, filling the interval between the top of the arch and 
the point of the pediment, encloses a spirited representation, in 
bas relief, of the Earl, mounted on a charger, at full speed. 
On the north side he is represented almost entirely in plate 
armour, and on the south in a mixture of plate and mail, on 
both sides covered with a surcoat, emblazoned with his arms, 
with a helmet on his head, from which floats a contesse in long 
folds. The charger is covered with a rich housing, emblazoned 
with arms similar to those on the surcoat. The two pedestals, 
which rise from behind the crockets on each side of the pedi- 
ment, were evidently intended to support small figures. They 
are almost peculiar to this and the adjoining monument, 

In addition to the sculptured ornaments with which this mo- 
nument has been so tastefully decorated, painting has been 



AYMER DE VALENCE, 

employed to give eiFect to those parts, which; either from 
choice or n^cessityi were left plain. The shafts of the angle 
pinnacles, and the backgrounds of the ornamental parts, have 
been coloured with designs, to give the effect of sculptured 
ornaments ; or plain, to give additional relief to the parts 
sculptured. 

The follow;ing arms are emblazoned on the shields, on the 
sides of the tomb ; for the description, together with the 
annexed pedigree, shewing their connexion with the de- 
ceased Earl, we are indebted to Mr. Willement, author of 
" Regal Heraldry." 

ON THE NORTH SIDE. 



Nol. 



Chequy or & azure, 
a border gules. 



This being only the sinister half of the 
shield, the soulptoi; could not shew the 
Canton, (Er.miqe), which would have pro- 
ved it to have been the arms of John de 
Dreux, father of Mary, Countess St. Pol, 



r Barry of 10 arg. & 
No. 2. Valence -i azure, an orle of 
[ Martlets gules, 
impaling 

' Gules 3 pales, 
Vaire, on a chief 
or, a^ label of 5 
points, azure. 



St. Pol. J 



The third wife of Aymer was Mary, dau ; 
of Guy de Chastillion, Count St. Pol. 



No. 4. Tenremonde. Or, a lion ramp*' 
Sa. debrnised 
with a bendlet, 
guleSi 

No. 4, Tenremonde, as No, 3 ; 
impaling 
. St. Pol. as before. 



John, Lord of Crevecoeur & Allenes, after- 
wards Lord of Tenremonde, Chasteau- 
dun, & Neele, married Beatrix, dau: of 
Guy, Couilt St. Pol, 

10 



EARL OF PEMBROKE. 



No. 9. Montchensy. 



No. 


5. 


France, antient,, Azure, Sem6 
de Us or. 


No. 


6. 


France, 
impaling 
De Dreux. 


as No. 5 ; 

Chequy or and 
azure, a border 
gulesj over all a 
Canton, Ermine. 


No. 


7. 


Hastings, 


Or a Manche 
gules. 


No. 


8. 


Amboise 
impaling 


Paly of 6. or 
and gules. 

Azure, 3 cinq- 
foils, or. 



Or 3 escutche- 
ons, Barry of 6. 
Vaire & gules. 



Blanch, second dau : of John de Dreux, 
" Duke of Brittany, was married to Phi- 
lip, son of Rob*- Earl of Artois. 



Issabel, eldest sister of Aymer, was mar- 
ried to John L*" Hastings, and their 
grandsQw. was created Earl of Pemi- 
broke, 13. Edw. 3. 

The family of Amboise were distantly re- 
tated'to the wife of Aymer, by the malr- 
riage of Mary, dau : of No., 4. with 
Engeran, Lord of Amboise. 

Joane, the mother of Aymer, was the dau: 
and hdr of Warine de Montcjiensy, by 
Joane his wife, sister and co-heir of 
Anselm Marshall, Earl of Pembroke. 



ON THE SOUTH SIDE. 



No. 1. Valence. 



Vide No. 2 North 
Side.. • 



No. 2. St. Pol. Vide No. 2, N. S. 
impaling 
De Dreux. Vide No. 6, N. S. 

No. 3. Lancaster. Gules, 3 lions pas- 
sant gardant in 
palcj or- Over all 
a label of three 
points azure, semd 
de lis or. 



Guy de Chastillion, Count St. Pol, married 
Mary, dau : of John de Dreux, Duke of 
Brittany ; their dau : was the 3* wife 
of Aymer. 

Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, 
son of K. Henry 3. married Elianor, dau: 
of Philip of Artois, by Blanch, duu: of 
John de DceiJK. Vide No. 2. and No. 6. 

, N,S. ,; . 



■10 



n 



A¥MER DE VALENCE, 



No. 4. Courcy Barry of 6. Vaire 
impaling & gules. 

St. Pol. as before. 



No. 5. Courcy. 

No. 6. Frsmce 
impaling 
St. Pol. 

No. 7. France. 

No. 8. Valence 
impaling 
St. Pol. 

Noi 9. St. Poh 



as before. 
Vide No. 5. N. S, 

as before. 

as before. 

as before, 
as before. 



Courcy, Vidame. de Laonois, was connect- 
ed to the wife of Aymer, by marriage 
with theChastillions. Ingelram de Courcy 
was, by K. Ed. 3., created Earl of Bed- 
ford. 



Charles de Valois married Maud^ sister of 
Aymer's wife, and dau : of Count St. 
Pol. 



Vide No. 2. North Side. 



Willi am =Joane 

de 
Valence. 



Montchensy. 



John de Dreuxj= 
P, of Brittany. 



Guy de Castillion,=Mary. 
Count St. Pol. 



Blanch==Philip of Artois. 



1 



r 1 i i 

lBsabeI=Hastitigs« Aymers=Mary. Charles=Maud. Tenremonde=Beatrix 

de of 

Valence. Valois. 

' i 

Amboise=Mary. 

Edmund==Eliaaor. 
£, Lancaster. 



Notwithstanding the high claims which this interesting mo- 
nument possesses, as an illustration of the perfection to which 
this branch of the arts had attained, at the commencement of 

12 



EARL OF PEMBROKE. 

the fourteenth century ; either from unpardonable neglect, or 
wilful injury, it has suffered very considerable dilapidations. 
The superior taste, however, of the present period, has not only 
rescued it from further injury, but has gone far to restore it to 
its pristine splendour. To the active exertions of the dean and 
prebendaries, assisted by the taste and judgment of Mr. 
Chantrey, we are indebted for the accomplishment of this im- 
portant object; and we cannot too highly commend the ala- 
crity with which Government supplied the means, nor the able 
manner in which the difficult task of restoring the monument, 
as far as there was authority for so doing, has been accom- 
plished, under the judicious superintendence of Mr. Gayfere. 

13 




Drawn Sr Engraved by Edw^El Tf" 



M^WWMISHT ®F §im JJ AMIES D®WiSLASg), 
in the 'Clhiurdbi of lUifflTu^^lafs . 




I'uili'hldirn-.Uil.i.trH.irdi'iui.Triphi'^ktLef.aTxl.Fin.-fuvySgcuLTc.ZL^ndm 



SIR JAMES DOUGLAS. 

Ob. 1331. 
mqnument at douglas. 

Little remains of the old church of Douglas, except an aisle, 
which appears to have been built about the middle of the four- 
teenth century, as a burial place for the ancient family of 
Douglas, and a small adjoining belfry. Iii the centre of this 
aisle is a vault, containing numerous coffins ; and on the North 
and South sides are erected monuments, intended to perpetuate 
the memory - of the most distinguished persons of that noble 
name. Among these, tradition has assigned one, on the North 
side,- to the celebrated Sir James Douglas. 

James, eighth Lord of Douglas, was the son, by a sister of the 
Lord Keith's, (or, as other writers say, by Elizabeth, the eldest 
daughter of Alexander, Lord High Steward of Scotland, and 
great grandfather to King Robert IL) of William Douglas, sur- 
named William the Hardie, or William Long Legge, from his 
courage, as well as his tall and commanding presence. He was 
among the first persons of rank who joined William Wallace ; 
and was governor of Berwick, which place he defended against 
the English with very great bravery, till, overpowered by num- 
bers, and compelled tosurrender, he was taken as a prisoner 
before Edward the First, who had previously obtained possession 
of.his wife and her younger children. Here, refusing to swear 
fealty to the English monarch, he was confined for more than 
seven years; and, according to the opinion of the best authors, 
died in the Castle of York, in 1303. 

1 



SIR JAMES DOUGLAS. 

The good Sir James Douglas, for so the subject of the present 
article is always styled, was, after his father's misfortunes, and 
upon his imprisonment, carried by his maternal uncle into 
France, the then school of chivalry, and the resort of all the 
rest of Europe for the attainment of polite literature. " Here," 
says David Hume of Godscroft, the historian of the family, " he 
remained exercising himself in all virtuous exercise, and pro- 
fited so well, that he became the most complete and best ac- 
complished young nobleman in the country, or elsewhere." 

As soon as the youthful heir of Douglas received intelligence 
of his father's death, he returned into Scotland ; supposing ithat 
all the English monarph's hsitred to himself and family would 
have perished with it;s obj,ect. |!lfindingj;however, his patrimony 
wrested from himself, and already bestowed on another, he be- 
took himself tp Lambert, the Archbishop of St. Andrew's, with 
whom he was distantly coji^nected, and who received- him with 
equal kindness and hospitality, not, altogether without hopes^ 
as it afterwards, appeared, of interesting^ King Edward's pity in 
behalf of his unfortunate; relation. An opportunity soon occur- 
red; whep. Ed\vard came to Stirling, and the archbishop pro- 
ceeded to the court, to p?iy . his own homage, he was accom- 
panied by young. James Douglas, . whom he introduced tothe 
king, bes^ecihing his majesty to take him under his protection, 
employ him. ii). his service, and restore him to the inheritance of 
his fathers,. It would have been>well fojr the En^ish: cause, had 
Edward suffered himself t(> forget the fancied injuries he had 
already more than sufficiently revenged/ and been prevailed, on 
to do justice by, the heir of his antient .opponent. His; vindic- 
tive feelingS;, however, prevailed?; Douglas, was not only d^ed 
the restitution for whijch he swed, but to the denial were added 
reproaches towards himself, and the severest reflections on the 
memory of his father. , .,.' 

From this interview, it may be supposed, that Douglas re- 
tired with no diminution of that hereditary hatred which he 

2 



SIR JAMES DOUGLAS. 

had now so ample an excuse for indulging against Edward .and 
his subjects. " Home he goes, (says the family chronicler), 
with this scorn, to expect a better time of replying, not in words 
but deeds; and of showing what service he was able to have 
done him." And, no sooner did Robert Bruce assert his right 
to the crown of Scotland, than Dottgks eagerly ehibraced the 
opportunity of. at once distinguishing himself, and taking re- 
venge upon his oppressor. It is said, that he departed clan- 
destinely from the Sirchbishop'd protection, but there are not 
wanting writers, who insinuate, that this" wds a preconcerted 
plan, and :1iiat the prelate secretly encouraged the enter- 
prize^, John Bellenden's translation of the noble clerk, Maister 
Hector Boece'a Groniklis of Scotland, gives the following ac- 
count of the transaction : *♦ Sameg ©otogla^, t<t mppott fegttg 

liS^obttt, at W pobtttt tuit all tj^e Ibtsicj&ojppiss soliy^ anDf "boxSt 
btitft ^ixiHv^ otbft baili^ant ^oung men of tti» opinion^ and 
famt to It^ns ^o'btvtf aj$ ft^&tt)op Eamlbertoun j^atr Itnaloin 
na tj^sns tj^airof^ ^fabtitttt a^^i^tit toeil sairto» fiot f)t 
Huv^t not opinlSt in auentute gif ong inMicitds ]^al]i follolnit 
tftect it micftt 8au« cumgn to fis BigpUgeir;" and Bishop 

Leslie fully qorroborates what is here asserted; 

It maybe easily imagined, that Douglas experienced a favour- 
able jfeception from Bruce, to whom indeed he must have been, 
in every respect, a most valuable ally.. His Jioble descent, the 
superiority of his education,. his personal bravery and accom- 
plishments, together with his high and daring spirit, all con- 
spired to render his co>operation and assistance of the last im- 
portance ;. and the similarity of their circumstances, and their 
mutual cause of complaint against the. same aggressor, as well 
as their mutual danger, contributed to unite them still closer in 
the bonds of friendship. It has been remarked, that no sove- 
reign ever possessed a more faithful and devoted servant, or a 
more zealous and affectionate friend, than Douglas proved to 
Bruce, from the time of his coronation to his death. Never, 

3 



SIR JAMES DOUGLAS. 

says a Scotch writer, did he desert him, although reduced to 
the last extremity ; ever was he forward to assist him, even in 
his great distress ; "in omnibus guerris suis athkta fidissinms" 

We must be contented to refer our readers to the professed 
historians of Scotland, for an account of the distinguished part 
taken by the Douglas, during the eventful period in which he 
lived. It is recorded of him, that he fought and cotiquered in 
ffty-rseven battles against the English, and claimed a share in 
thirteen victories against the Saracens. At the battle of Ban- 
nockbum in 1314, he commanded the left wing of the Scotch 
army, and gained, by his gallant behaviour, the admiration of 
his sovereign ; who, in token of his good service, bestowed upon 
him the honour of knighthood, before the whole army, and on 
the field' of battle. 

In 1327, when the English army, commanded by King 
Edward the Third in person, was emcamped within sight of the 
Scottish forces, on the banks of the Ware, Sir James Douglas 
made a bold and hazardous attempt against the person of the 
English monarch, which deserves mention, if it be only illus- 
trative of the ferocious temper of the times. Douglas, passing 
the river at some distance from' the camps, entered with a 
chosen band of followers, within the enemies' lines, and, pre- 
tending to be an English officer going his rounds, penetrated 
even to the royal tent. Crying out — "Ha! St. George, no 
watch!" he deceived the sentinels, entered the king's tent, and 
killed the chamberlain in waiting ; and the king would assured- 
ly have shared a similar fate; had not his chaplain interposed 
his own body between the weapon and his royal master, and 
received the fatal blow. The king, awakened by the tumult, 
defended himself till his guards came to his assistance, when 
Douglas, taking advantage of the general confusion, escaped, 
not however without the loss of many of his companions. 

Sir James Douglas received several proofs of gratitude and re- 
gard from the hands of Bruce. He was constituted warden of the 

4 



SIR JAMES D0UGLA3. 

marches, had a grant of the town and castle of Jedwofth, and 
received a new charter of all the lands and towns of Douglas. 
And in 1329, he obtained, from King Edwa,rd, aright of all 
the lands, castles, and possessions, that belonged to .his father, 
William Lord Douglas, in Northumberland and elsewhere, in 
England. 

But the most convincing proof of Bruce's esteem for Dou- 
glas, was the commission with which he was , entrusted by that 
monarch in his last moments. Bruce had formerly bound him- 
self, - by a vow, to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land,— a 
vow, which his infirmities and disease now no longer left him 
the means of fulfilling. He accordingly besqught his friend to 
be the bearer of his heart to Palestine, directing that it, might 
be deposited near our Saviour's sepulchre, in Jerusalem, j Sir 
James cheerfully undertook a task to which piety and friend- 
ship; so forcibly called him ; and, taking \vith him a splendid 
retinue of knights and attendants, he succeeded in accomplish- 
ing the arduous attempt ; and the heart of Bruce was interred 
as he had so earnestly requested. The issue of, this expe- 
dition, however, proved fatal. Returning from the H9ly Land, 
he landed in Spain, and, being prevailed on to lend his 
assistance to the King of Arragan, who was then warring 
against the Moors, himself and all his followers fell into an 
ambuscade, and, overpowered by numbers, were utterly cut 
off". Thus perished Sir James Douglas, Lord of Douglas, on 
the 31st of April, 1331. His bones were carefully preserved, 
in order to be interred at Douglas, whither, if history may be 
credited, they were subsequently conveyed. 

The monument which tradition has; assigned to the celebrated 
warrior we have just been noticing, is on the north side of the 
Douglas aisle. The effigy is of dark stone, cross-legged. The 

_:~l.^ Ur>^<1 Vioci Kaan I'arvi'cicifiTif 0/4 in tVio^anir, f\f ArafnrirMT flip 



SIR JAMES DOUGLAS. 

hand are broken off and lost, from the shoulder downwards, as is 
the corresponding leg,' from the knee. The long pointed shield 
which he bears on his left arm is without armorial bearing, and 
much broken. The general style of the figure is rather rude, 
with the exception of the folds of the drapery of the surcoat, 
which, in many parts, are simple and well arranged. The 
armour is destitute of the slightest indication of chain-work ; 
and it is, therefore, probable, that a different material was 
intended to be represented, or that the chain-work was indica- 
ted by colours now obliterated. The feet rest against the 
mutilated remains of an animal, probably a lion. We are aware 
that the general style of this effigy belongs to a period anterior 
to the death of Sir James Douglas ; but it is not probable, that 
the English, whilst they held such long and precarious tenure 
of the adjoining castle, and reduced the neighbourhood to such 
a state of desolation, by way of retaliation on its owner, would 
allow the church, which might have been held to their annoy- 
ance, to escape without injury, or that they would spare the 
memorial of any preceding member of the family. We may, 
therefore, fairly conclude, that the aisle now standing is a por- 
tion of the church built either by Sir James Douglas himself, or 
his immediate successor, on coming into quiet possession of his 
property; and the monument under consideration, which is 
the oldest in the church, was intended to perpetuate his 
memory. In answer to any objection to the style of the effigy, 
it may be urged, in order to establish its connexion with that 
distinguished individual, that the progress of art in Scotland 
was slower than in England, and that, in every department of 
sculpture, they followed, rather than kept pace with, their con- 
temporaries. It may be further stated, as a reason for the 
figure being crossed-legged, after that custom had been nearly 
abolished in this country, that Sir James died when engaged on 
a pilgrimage, and in battle against the infidels, — circumstances 
which would doubtless induce the sculptor to adopt such a 

6 



SIR JAMES DOUGLAS. 

mode of representation as had been previously usual under 
similar circumstances. And it is no slight corroboration of 
these conjectures, that there is a very close analogy between 
the size and proportion of the effigy, and the description of 
Sir James's person, as recorded in the annals of the family. 

The above circumstances may not, indeed, entirely establish 
the fact of the effigy being that of Sir James Douglas ; yet, 
when coupled with the fact of the body having been removed 
from Spain for interment at Douglas, and when it is clear that 
no other effigy in the chapel can, by any possibility, be assign- 
ed to that illustrious warrior, there certainly seems a very 
strong presumption in favour of tradition. 

The arch, under which the effigy is placed, appears to be 
of rather more modern date, is of elegant design, and excellent 
workmanship. The shield, under the canopy of the arch, con- 
tains the Heart, an addition to the armorial bearings of the 
family, granted in consequence of his mission to the Holy 
Land, but the three mullets are now completely obliterated. 

The tradition of the spot relates, that when Croniwell laid 
siege to the castle of Douglas, his troops spoiled the chapel, 
and considerably injured the monuments of the family. There 
are not wanting some who tell us, that this tomb of Sir James 
Douglas was the peculiar object of their vengeance, on account 
of the injury the English cause sustained from his individual 
exertions: but, without ascribing much national discrimina- 
tion to the destroyers, the mere circumstance of the chapel 
having been for some time in the hands of an hostile and repub- 
lican army, will sufficiently account for the dilapidations of 
the tomb itself, and the mutilated state of the figure. 

7 




rnwri "t "Edw II re 



Engrared "by E Le Keux 
IB THE CHURCH AT WItJCHXLSEA. 



.fUhhs?i£d Jzdy 128^^ iy Nar.ii^i^ TH^JwoTc kZepa.y-d.Finslijjy Sqiue-e ,lan/J/n-, 



GERVASE ALARD, 

ADMIRAL OF THE CINQUE PORTS. 

MONUMENT AT WINCHELSEA. 

The monument which we have ventured to assign to Gervase 
Alard, stands under a window of the south aisle of the choir of 
the church at Winchelsea, the only portion now remaining of 
that very beautiful edifice. As the style of the monument cor- 
responds with that of the church, and proves it, without doubt, 
to be contemporary with the erection of the original building, 
we are led to infer, that it was constructed for the purpose of 
commemorating some munificent benefactor to this pious under- 
taking; and that person we believe to have been Gervase 
Alard. 

Whether or not the grounds which have induced us to arrive 
at such a conclusion will be equally satisfactory to our readers, 
we cannot pretend to determine, but we hope there is a suffi- 
cient degree of probability in favour of our opinion to excuse us, 
even should it subsequently appear that we have been deceived ; 
and in this case, the extraordinary beauty of the monument itself 
will be a very satisfactory reason for its introduction in the pre- 
sent work. 

It appears, from ancient redord, that Peter of Savoy (de 
Sabaudia) received from his kinsman. King Henry the Third, a 
^rant of Winchelsea to hold, during pleasure, as part of the ho- 
nour of Aquila. Towards the latter end of Henry III. Win- 
chelsea was conferred on his eldest son Edward, afterwards 

1 



GERVASE ALARD. 

King of England, by whom it was settled in marriage on his 
Queen Elinor; from which time, to a considerable period after 
the date we are disposed to assign to the monument in question, 
it appears to have continued in the crown. About the year 
1250, the old town having been destroyed by frequent irrup- 
tions of the sea, the inhabitants preferred a petition to the king, 
(Edward I.) first, for relief, and secondly, for a plot of ground 
on which to erect a new town. The Bishop of Ely, then trea- 
surer of England, was sent to inquire into the request, and to 
regulate such proceedings as might appear necessary ; and the 
event was, that, after an agreement with Sir John Tregose, one 
Maurice, and the abbey of Battel, (in whom the property of 
the land in question appears to have been vested,) the king 
granted for the new town of Winchelsea a site of eighty acres. 

In the course of a few years, the new town of Winchelsea 
rivalled, if it did not exceed, in wealth and magnificence, that 
which had been destroyed ; and there can be little doubt, but 
that the church was one of the first edifices reared by the pious 
liberality of the inhabitants. Of these, none appear on record 
to have been so nearly connected with the place, at that 
time, as Gervase Alard, and no person more likely than himself, 
both from his public station and individual wealth, to have been 
a principal contributor to the building ; and, as was the custom 
of the period, to incorporate with the structure a memorial of 
his own name and munificence. 

The first mention of a Gervase Alard we have yet met with, 
is in 1254, 39th Henry III. when he occurs party in a cause at 
the Cinque Ports. This was, probably, the father of Gervase 
Alard, who, in 1306, 34th Edward I., was captain and admiral 
of the Cinque Ports, and of all other ports from Dover, Westward, 
including the county of Cornwall. The instrument in question 
directs him to proceed with the whole fleet under his command 
to Skynburnesse or Kirkcudebright, there to lend all aid against 
the Scotch rebels, as they were considered. And there are se- 

2 



GERVASE ALARD. 

veral other documents existing, that prove the respectability apd 
affluence of the family. It appears from the Inquisitiones ad quod 
Damnum, 1st Edward II., 1307, that Henry Alard of Winchel- 
sey held certain lands belonging to the king in Westham, called 
Yland. In the 4th of Edward III., the king devises to Robert 
Alard and Gervase Alard of Winchelsea, the towns of Winchel- 
sea and Rye, with the manor of Iham and its dependencies, in 
Sussex, for three years, subject to a certain annual payment. 
And in 41st Edward III., Agnes the wife of Gervase Alard 
died, seized of Snergate manor in the county of Kent. 

The documents we have just quoted, afford sufficient proof of 
the wealth and high antiquity of the Alards, and in corrobora- 
tion of our opinion, that the monument in question was erected to 
Gervase Alard, we have a very ancient and respectable authori- 
ty. " Alarde of Winchelesey was a man of estimation, and 
lyith buried yn Winchelesey. Oxenbridge of Southsax is heire 
by descente to this Alarde, and berith his armes." So says 
Leland, whose accuracy of information is too well established 
to require any eulogy in this place, and who lived sufficiently 
near the time, to procure the most authentic tradition, which 
he did, by visiting the spot, and registering the information he 
' received in his well-known " Itinerary." 

From these concurring circumstances, we conceive ourselves 
warranted in ascribing the Winchelsea monument to Gervase 
Alard, and a more beautiful specimen of sepulchral magnifi- 
cence could hardly have been selected. 

The monument is composed entirely of stone, wrought with 
extraordinary nicety, but now so thickly plaistered over with 
repeated coats of white-wash, as nearly to have obliterated 
some of the minuter ornaments. The effigy is of stone, lying 
with its face somewhat inclined towards the church : it is cross- 
legged and armed, according to the style of figures of the same 
age, with the hands elevated, enclosing a heart, and having a 
lion at the feet. That it was originally painted is very clear, 

3 



GERVASE ALARD. 

although the colours are now so nearly effaced as to render the 
decorations on the surcoat unintelligible. It is without a shield, 
and has the mutilated remains of two large angels supporting 
the doubljE cushion on which the head reposes. The painted 
pattern on the cushions remaiiis, in some parts, tolerably per- 
fect: that of the upper cushion consisting of a blue ground, 
on which are drawn dark lines, forming lozengesj enclosing 
quatrefoils ; and on the lower are the same,, with the exception 
of the quatrefoil, instead of which small roses are inserted, at 
the intersection of the lines. The sword-belt has been deco- 
rated with painted ornaments, now nearly eifaced, if we ex- 
cept two dark lines running parallel to the sides ; the knee-cap, 
which terminates in a fringe, and is decorated with a row of 
raised escalops surrounding the knee, has the centre of each 
escalop enriched with a lozenge in colour, with a semi-circle in- 
scribed on every face. 

4 




DraT/iL ..^Engraved WT-dw^Blore. 



M@HTimr.rsST^"U <rj>w I^isicjcioe-'ii^e, Ti^OA QTC:i?n^iH Oil-:' FoTJ^©- MWWA'MJ^ 'i^m-i 3^ 



IIJ AVE ATMn.ISTh"R AHT,[i',V. 



'^ '■//-//.:■/ Jfc'v I.!2il A- Jl.jrduio .1- /./■„/•,/ /;;/■/ Jl.ill /■„,/-. Ivjulor, . 



PHILIPPA, 

QUEEN TO EDWARD THE THIRD. 
OB. 1369. 

MONUMENT AT WESTMINSTER. 

Philippa, the youngest daughter of William, Count of Hollande, 
and Hainault, by Jane de Valois, was married to Edward the 
Third King of England, at the conclusion of the first year of his 
reign, 1327. The marriage was celebrated in the city of York in 
the evening of the feast of the conversion of St. Paul. Harding 
has preserved an anecdote respecting the choice of Philippa, in 
preference to her Other sisters, which if true would be sufficiently 
curious. He says that she was selected by the Bishop of Co- 
ventry, and gives the peculiar formation of her person as the 
reason of the prelate's preference. 

" He sent forthe than to benalde for a wife 
A bisshopp and other lordes temporall 
Whare in chambre pryve in secretife 
At discouert deschevely als in alle 
As semyng was to estate virginall 
Among hem self oure lordes for high prudence 
Of the bisshopp axed counsail and sentence 

" Whiche doughter of fyve sholde be the quene 
Who counsailed thus with sad aduisement 
We wil haue hir with good hepes I mene 
Ffor she wol here good sonnes at myn entent 
To whiche they alle accorde by one assent 
And chase Philipp that was fill femynyne 
As the bishopp moost wise did determyne 
1 



PHILIPPA, 

" But thann among hem self they lewghe fast ay 
The lordes than and said the bisshopp couthe 
Fful mekel skele of a womann alway 
That so couthe chese a lady was vncouthe 
And for the mery woordes that came of his mouth * 
They trowed he had right grete experience 
Of womans rule and hir conuenience." 

This, although a very good story, is not very probable : it is 
more likely, as we have before stated t, that Edward was con- 
tracted to Philippa when he visited France with his mother 
during his father's reign, and the supposition is in a great mea- 
sure corroborated by Froissart, who expressly says that the 
young prince preferred her to any of her sisters. " And as than 
this erle hadde four fayre doughters, Margaret, Philyppe, Jane, 
and Isabell : amonge whome the yong Edwarde sette most his 
loue and company on Phylyppe : and also the yong lady in al 
honour was more conuersaunt with hym than any of her susters." 
The embassy of Bishop Northborough, and his brother diplo- 
matists, two knights bannerets and two men learned in the laws, 
was probably rather to demand the lady, already fixed on, in 
marriage, and to make the necessary arrangements for her de- 
parture, than to select a bride for their new sovereign. 

Philippa appears not only to have fulfilled the expectations of 
Bishop Northborough, for she was a very fruitful consort, but 
to have been highly acceptable to the English nation. Her 
elegance of manner, beauty of person, her undaunted courage. 



* This line is omitted in the MS. from which we have quoted : we have supplied 
itj as necessary for the sense and structure of the verse, from the best edition of the 
printed Chronicle, by Mr. Ellis, quarto, Lond. 1812. 

t In the account of Edward III. p. 2. On this subject Mr. F. Madden writes, 
" I think I recollect a statement in some contemporary Chronicles, that young 
Edward was betrothed to the daughter of the Count of Hainault in consideration 
of the forces to be supplied by her father, to enable Isabel to depose Edw. II. At 
all events, this is the most probable mode of accounting for the match." 

2 



QUEEN TO EDWARD THE THIRD. 

strong good sense, and above all her amiable temper and exem- 
plary conduct, endeared her to all ranks. 

, Hearne, who calls her a most beautiful, charming, lovely crea- 
ture, " the mirrour as it were of her sex," will have it 'that all 
the pictures and statues of the Virgin Mary at, and immediately 
after the period of Philippa, were representations of that Queen ; 
and it is not improbable that the artists and statuaries paid this 
compliment to a Queen so accomplished and beloved. Froissart 
relates an anecdote of her intrepid behaviour at the battle of 
Durham, called by that historian, as well as by Grafton, the 
battle of Newcastle, which if true (and we see no reason to doubt 
its authenticity) could not have had any other effect than that 
of rendering her universally popular. During the absence of her 
husband in France, the northern counties were invaded by David, 
King of Scotland, at the head of fifty thousand men. Philippa 
hastily assembled an army riot exceeding twelve thousand, and 
riding through the ranks immediately before the battle, exhorted 
and encouraged her little army to do their duty, promising 
in the name of her lord, to reward their fidelity and deserts : 
" The quene cae among her men, and there was ordayned four 
batayls, one to ayde another : the firste had in gouernaunce the 
bysshoppe of Dyrham, and the lorde Percy : the seconde the 
archbysshoppe of Yorke, and the lorde Neuyll : the thyrde the 
bysshoppe ofLincolne, and the lorde Mobray: the fourth the 
lorde Edwarde de Baylleule, captayne of Berwyke, the arch- 
bysshoppe of Canterbury, and the lorde Rose : euery batayle 
had lyke nobre, after their quantyte : the quene went fro batayle 
to batayle, desyring them to do their deuoyre, to defende the 
honoure of her lorde the kyng of Englande, and in the name of 
god, euery man to be of good hert and courage, promysyng them, 
that to her power she wolde remebre theym as well or better, 
as though her lorde the kyng were ther personally. Than the 
quene departed fro them, recomendyng them to god and to saynt 
George." 

3 



PHILIPPA, 

Grafton's account follows : " There was ordeyned ftmre bat- 
tayles, one to ayde another. The first was in the gouernance 
of the Bishop of Durham, and the Lorde Percy : The second^, 
the Arichebishop of Yorke, and the Lorde Neuyll: The thirde, 
the Bishop of Lincolne & and the Lord Mowebray : The fourth, 
the Lorde Edward BailioU Capitaine of Barwicke arid the Arche- 
bishop of Cauntorbury, and the Lord Rosse, euery battaile had 
like number after their quantity: and the Quene went from 
battaile to battaile, praying them to do their deuoyre for the 
defence of the honour of their Lord and maister the king of 
England, and in the name of God euery man to be of good heart 
and courage, promisyng them that to her power, she would re- 
member them as well and better, as though, the king her Lorde 
were there personally. And so the Queene departed from them, 
recommendyng them to God." 

The well known account of her intercession with Edward for 
the preservation of the six burgesses of Calais is recorded by the 
same historian, but has been too often repeated to allow of so 
long an extract. There is an anecdote of a very different nature 
mentioned by Robert de Graystanes (Wharton's " Anglia Sacra," 
i, 760), which deserves to be given, as a proof of her humility 
and good sense. Having followed Edward to the city of Durham, 
«he was conducted to him through the gate of the abbey to 
the prior's lodgings, where the King then resided, and having, 
«upped, retired to rest with her royal lord. She was however 
soon disturbed by one of the monks, who rudely intimated to 
the King that St. Cuthbert by no means loved the pTesence of 
her sex. The Queen upon this got out of bed, and having 
hastily dressed herself " in tunica sola cooperta," went to the 
castle for the remainder of the night, asking pardon for the crime 
of which she had inadvertently been guilty against the patron 
saint of their powerful establishment. 

Although we have already quoted so largely from Froissart, 
we are unable to refrain from giving an account of Queen 

4 



QUEEN TO EDWARD THE THIRD. 

Philippa's death in his own words : no others would be so ex- 
pressive or characteristic. 

" In the meane seasone there fell in England a heuy case and 
a comon : howbeit it was right pyteouse for the kyng,, his chyl- 
dren, and all his realme, for the good quene of Englande, that so 
many good dedes had done in her tyme, and so many knightes 
socoured, and ladyes and damesels coforted, and had so largely 
departed of her goodes to her people, and naturally loued alwayes 
the nacyon of Heynaulte, the countrey wher she was borne, sh^ 
fell sicke in the castell of WjTidsore, the whiche sickenesse con- 
tynewed on her so Ipnge, that there was no remedye but dethe ; 
and the good lady, whanne she knew and parceyued that there 
was with her no remedy but dethe, she desyred to speke with 
the kynge her husbande, and whan he was before her, she put 
out of her bedde her right hande, and toke the kynge by his 
right hande, who was right sorrpwfuU at his hert : than she said, 

* Sir, we haue in peace, ioye, and great prosperyte, used all 
oure tyme toguyder : Sir, nowe Z pray you at our departyng, 
that ye wyll graut me thre desyres :' the kynge, ryght sorrow- 
fully wepyng, sayd, ' Madame, desyre what ye wyll, I graunt it.' 

* Sir,' sayde she, ' I requyre you firste of all, that all maner of 
people, suche as I haue dault with all in their marchaundyse, on 
this syde the see or beyond, that it may please you to pay euery 
thynge that I owe to theym, or to any other : and secondly, sir, 
all suche ordynauce and promyses as I haue ijiade to the churches, 
as well of this countrey as beyonde the see, wher as I haue hadde 
my deuoeyon, that it maye please you to accoipplysshe and to 
fuUfyll the same : thirdely, sir, I requyre you that it may please 
you to take none other sepulture, whan soeuer it shall please god 
to call you out of this transytorie lyfe, but besyde me in West- 
mynster :* the kynge all weepynge, sayde, ' Madame, I graunt 
all your desyre.' Than the good lady and quene made on her 
the signe of the crosse, and comaunded the kyng her hugbande 

*5 



PHILIPPA, 

to god, and her yongest sone Thomas, who was there "besyde her : 
and anone after she yelded up the spiryte, the whiehe I beleue 
surely the holy angels receyued with great ioy vp to heuen, for 
in all her lyfe she dyd neyther in thought nor dede thyng, 
whereby to lese her soule, as fere as any creature coulde knowe. 
Thus the good quene of Englande dyed, in the yere of our lorde 
M.CCC.lxix. and in the vigyll of our lady, in the myddes of 
August. Of whose dethe tidynges came to Tornehen, into the 
englysshe boost, whereof every creature was sore displeased, and 
ryght sorrowful]." 

The monument of PhUippa stands on the south side of the 
Chapel of the Confessor in Westminster Abbey, at the foot of 
that of her royal consort, and under a corresponding arch. Like 
that, it is also much more elevated towards the aisle than on the 
opposite side. It consists of an altar tomb of black marble, sur- 
mounted by a simple canopy of wood. The sides of the tomb 
were originally enriched with a profusion of canopy work in 
pierced alabaster of the most admirable design and most delicate 
execution. Of these canopies there were four large and three 
small on each side, and two large and one small at each end ; 
each large canopy containing two small figures, and every small 
canopy one figure, with a shield of arms under each, to denote 
the individual intended to be represented. The continued kind- 
ness of Mr. WiUement has furnished us with the following list of 
arms (those printed in italics being the only ones now remaining), 
with the individuals to whom they belong, and a statement of 
their connection with the illustrious princess*. The slab on 

* THE FOLLOWING ARMS EXISTED FOEMERLY ON THE MONUMENT. 

At the West end. 

1. Quarterly France antient and England, over all a label of three points argent. 

Edward Prince of Wales, son of Philippa. 

2. Or, an eagle displayed, double-headed sable. The Emperor, brother in law of 

Philippa. 

6 



QUEEN TO EDWARD THE THIRD. 

which the effigy reposes, like the side of the tomb, is of black 
marble. The effigy is carved in alabaster, and represents a 
female, stout, almost approaching to corpulency, with a mild, 



3. Quarterly France antient and England. . King Edward III. 

4. France antient. • Isabel, mother of Edward III. 

5. Quarterly, 1 and 4, or a lion rampant sa. Haynault. 2 and 3, or a lion ram- 

pant gules. Holland. William 3d, Count of Haynault, father of Queen 
Philippa. 

At the East end. 

6. Quarterly, I and 4, gules a castle or. Castile. 2 and 3, argent a lion rampant 

gules. Leon. Eleanor of Castile, grandmother of King Edward III. 

7. France antient, a label of three points gules. Anjou. 

8. Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure, flowered gules. David II. King 

of Scots, brother-in-law to King Edward, 

9. Gules, a lion rampant, argent crowned or. 

1 0. Gules, a cross, saltire, and border of chains or. Navarre. 

At the right side. 

1 1 . No. 5. impaling No. 18. Joane de Valois, mother of Queen Philippa. 

12. Same as No. 5> 

13. No. 2. impaling No. 5. Margaret wife of Louis, Emperor, sister of Queen 

Philippa. 

14. Azure a lion rampant, double queved, crowned or. Raynold, Duke of Gueldres. 

15. No. 14. impaling g. three lions passant gajrdant in pale or, Eleanor, Duchess 

of Gueldres, sister of King Edward III. 

16. Quarterly, 1 and 4, paU bendi argent and azure. Bavaria. 2 and 3 as No. 5. 

William, Duke of Bavaria, Count of Haynault and Holland, nephew to 
Queen Philippa. 

17. Quarterly, 1 and 4, or a manche gules. Hastings. 2 and 3, Barry of 10 

argent and azure, an orle of martlets gules. Valence impaling No. 3. Mar- 
garet, Countess of Pembroke, daughter of Philippa. 

1 8. Azure sem6 de lis or, a bordure gules. Valois. 

19. No. 5. impaling quarterly I and 4 sa. a lion rampant or. Brabant, 2 and 3, 

argent a lion rampant gules. Luxemburg. Jane of Brabant, sister-in-law to 
Queen Philippa. 

On the left side. 

20. Quarterly France antient and England, a label of three points argent, each 

charged with a canton gules. Lionel, Duke of Clareuee, son of Philippa. 

7 



PHILIPPA, 

benevolent, and dignified countenance. The dress is extremely 
simple, consisting only of a robe drawn close round the body by 
a lace .from the bosom to the hips, where it is confined by a rich 
belt, whence it falls in straight folds down _to the feet. The 
sharp points of the toes just make their appearance from under- 
neath this robe. The sleeves are tight, seamed with pe3,rls, and 
partly cover the hands. An open mantle, fastened across the 
breast by a cordon^ reaches down to the feet. The hair is col- 
lected in a large mass on each side of the face, and appears to 
have been enclosed in a rich ornament of precious material, of 
which nothing now remains. The right hand is broken off, but 
evidently sustained a sceptre, supported at the upper end by a 
small metallic projection, which still remains on that side of the 
head. The left hand holds the cordon of the mantle. The head 
rests on a double cushion with drapery spread over them. The 
fragments of the hands of two angels, one of which was placed 
on each side as supporters to the drapery, still remain. At the 
feet are a lion and lioness apparently caressing each other. The 
principal canopy over the head of the efiigy, as well as the smaller 



21. No. 20. impaling or a cross gules. Elizabeth de Burgb, wife of the preceding. 

22. Quarterly France antient, and England on a label of three points argent, nine 

torteaux. Edw'ard, Dnke of York, son of Philippa. 

23. Barry of 6, vaire and gules impaling No. 3. Isabel, Duchess of Bedford, 

daughter of Philippa. 

24. Quarterly, France antient and England, a label of three points ermine. John, 

Duke of Lancaster, son of Philippa. 
25/ No. 1. impaling gules, three lions passant gardant in pale or, a bordure argent. 

Joane, Princess of Wales. 
26.t Gules,- three lions passant gardant in pale or, a bordnre azure seme de lis or. 

John of Eltham, E. Cornvrall, brother-in-law of Philippa. 
27- No. 8. impaling gules, three lions passant gardant in pale or. Joane, Queen 

of Scots, sister-in-law of Philippa. 
28. Quarterly, France antient and England, a bordure argent. Thomas, Duke of 
, Gloucester, son of Philippa. 

8 




Dj-awnlaj E. Blare. 



Xti^^vedtiy-HXe Keux. 



inL WestmiiastiEir . 






J'u2?lLS?i^'i 7)trc'^^S J,9^£: ly HoT-d^vn^ ^Zepiird.F-inslury Sefv^T>f,lffnjhm.. 



QUEEN TO EDWARD THE THIRD, 

lateral canopies, are of alabaster. The small openings,, re- 
presenting^ windows, at the top of the principal canopy, were 
originally filled with stained glass of various colours, of which a 
fragment or two only remain. No inscription is now visible, 
but Sandford has given the following, as formerly on the ledge 
of the tomb : 

REGINA PHILIPPA CONJVNX EDWARDI JACET HIC 
REGINA PHILIPPA DISCE VIVERE. 

The following lines were also inscribed on a tablet hanging 
near the tomb : 

Gulielmi Hannonis soboles postrema Phillppa, 

Hie roseo quondam pulcbra decore jacet. 
Tertius Edwardus Rex ista conjuge letus, 

Materno suasu nobiliumque fiiit : 
Frater Johannes Comes Mauortius heros, 

Huic illam voluit consociare viro. 
Hec junxit Flandros conjunctio sanguinis Anglis : 

In Francos venit hinc Gallica dira lues. 
Dotibus hec raris yiguit regina Philippa, 

Forma prestanti^ Religione, Fide. 
Fecunde nata est proles numerosa parent!, 

Insignes peperit magnanimosque duces. 
Oxonii posuit studiosis optima nutrix 

Regineas edes, Falladiamque scholam. 
Disce virere. 

Having described what this monument was in its original state, 
when it was one of the greatest ornaments of the noble fabric 
in which it stands, we must now perform the painful task of 
recording the lamentable reverse it has experienced. The first 
mutilation appears to have taken place when the magnificent 
shrine enclosing the monument of King Henry the Fifth was 
erected, to make room for which the north-east angle was buried 
in one of the abutments of that costly work. In subsequent 
times the whole of the tabernacle work of the side of the tomb, 

9 



PHILIPPA, QUEEN TO EDWARD THE THIRD. 

with the exception of the bases of two of the 'canopies, has been 
entirely demolished, leaving exposed the plain black marble sub- 
structure. Of the two ranges of sftiall canopies on the slab, that 
on the north side alone remains, and that too in a very mutilated 
state; and the great canopy over the head of the figure has 
suffered considerable dilapidations. Under these circumstances 
the annexed plate, in which the decorations of the side and top 
of the tomb have been carefully restored, will scarcely be recog- 
nized by those who are only acquainted with it in its present 
forlorn state. As these restorations, however, have been exe- 
cuted upon the authority of a most careful examination of small 
portions still attached to the tomb, and Other fragments which 
have been removed from the place, and to which we have had 
access, we venture to hope that the admirers of monumental 
sculpture will not think we have stepped beyond the due limits 
of our undertaking, in giving a perfect representation of a tomb 
which, in point of style and beauty, is almost without a parallel, 
and which in its present mutilated state can hardly be considered 
of interest. We should not omit to mention, that there is a 
striking likeness in the features and expression between the 
effigies of Queen Philippa and that of the Black Prince already 
described, particularly in the profiles — ^a Circumstance which adds 
to the probability of their being portraits, and confers great addi- 
tional value on both the effigies. 

10 




ffi 


w 




c 


k 


;« 






"S 


^ 


s 

M 


1 


7fV 


eai 


t^ 






m 


3=3 


^. 



THOMAS BEAUCHAMP, 

EARL OF WARWICK. 

r 

OB. 1370. 

MONUMENT AT WARWICK. 

Thomajs, .eldest son of Guy, Earl of Warwick, by Alice, daugh? 
tei- of Ralph de Tony, .of Flamsted, in Hertfordshire, yras born 
in Warwick Castle, in 1313 or 1314, having for sponsors, at his 
baptism, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, his brother Henry, and 
Thomas de Warington, Prior of Kenilworth. His father dying 
before he.was two years old, Dugdale suspects that Hugh Le 
Despencer, who had pyeyiously .obtiained the custody of his. 
father'spbssessiohs'at Elmley and Warwick, in satisfaction, as 
was pretended, of a debt due fromtheKing, had also the wj-rdr 
ship. of the young Earl; but it is certain that, after t^e fall of 
that favourite, .and early in the next reign, Roger de Mortimer 
had the jcustody of Warwick Castle, and all other t]^e Earl of 
Warwick's lands,- until he should arrive at full age. There can 
be no" doubt,- but that 'this was bestowed upon Mortiijjpr with a 
view to a subsequent un.iou bej;ween the families, in the person 
of the young Earl land the lady Cathjerine Mortimer, a measure 
which appears t.o have beejj pontemplated in Jhe preceding 
reign, since jye find Edward the Secorj.d applying to the Pope 
for ajspecial ;dispensa,tion to enable this union to ta]ke pl^cci pa 
the ground that there hp,d fprmejly been a yiolent contention,^ 
attended with much anijmp^ity on botlj. sidgs, t»etw;eeij Guy, 
Earl of Warwick, the mjnpr's father, an4 Upger de Mortimer, 

1 



THOMAS BEAUCHAMP, 

on their respective rights to some lands in the Marches of 
Wales ; and that it would tend greatly to restore peace and 
amity between the two families, if his Holiness would permit 
this marriage to be consummated, although the parties were 
allied in the third and fourth degrees of consanguinity. This 
marriage afterwards took place in the twelfth of Edward the 
Third. 

When about seventeen, the promise displayed by the young 
Earl of Warwick was so great, that the King was induced, as 
a mark of especial favour, to receive his homage as if he had 
been of full age, and to grant him livery of all his father's lands ; 
and in the fourth of Edward, he entered upon his hereditary 
offices of Sheriff of Worcestershire, and Chamberlain of the 
Exchequer ; and the nekt year he was appointed Governor of 
Guernsey, and the adjacent islands. 

From the moment he was capable of bearing arms, the whole 
life of this illustrious nobleman was devoted to the active ser- 
vice of his sovereign. He attended Edward in his wars in 
Scotland and France ; was present when Edward Balliol did 
homage to the English King, and bore a conspicuous part in 
the great naval victory of 1340. In the eighteenth of Edward, 
he was constituted Sheriff of Worcestershire and Leicestershire 
for life ; and the same year created Earl Marshal of England. 
He was one of the marshals of the King's army sent into 
France, and one of the chief commanders, who, under the 
Black Prince, led the van of the English army in the battle of 
Crecy. At Poictiers he, in company with the Earl of Suffolk, 
fought so long and with so much bodily exertion, that their 
hands were galled with the continued use of the sword and 
poll'ixe. It was in this engagement that he took William de 
Melleun, Archbishop of Seinz, prisoner, for whose ransom he 
lireceived no less a sum than eight thousand pounds sterling. 

In the thirty-seventh of Edward III., he attended Prince 

2 



EARL OP WARWICK. 

Edward into Gascony, and thence, says Dugdaie, "beginning 
his travail into more remote countriesi had, at the request of the 
Pope, letters of safe conduct from the governor of Dauphine 
and Viennois, to pass without interruption through those parts, 
having no less than three hundred horse for his attendants and 
train ; which consisted of knights, esquires, archers, friends, 
and servants ; Sir Jacques de Arteville, with ten persons of his 
company, being appointed to guide and guard him through 
those provinces." The valiant Sir Jaques and his ten com- 
panions might, doubtless, be very useful guides in an unknown 
country ; but of what avail their prowess could be in guarding 
an English warrior with three hundred knights and esquires, 
well mounted, and not altogether unused to deeds of arms, is 
more than we are able to imagine. He passed three years in 
the East*, warring against the infidels ; and on his return, he 
brought with him the son of the king of Lithuania, who was 
christened in London, by the name of Thomas, the Earl him- 
self standing god-father. Nor did the Earl's ardour for military 
glory ^.broad prevent him from exercising the more peaceful 
virtues of piety and public spirit, in his own immediate vicinity , 
He rebuilt the walls of Warwick castle, which had for a long 
time been demolished, adding to them strong gates> and forti- 
fying the gateways with embattled towers. He founded the 
fihoir of the collegiate church of St. Mary ; he built a booth- 
hall in the market-place of Warwick, and made the town toll- 
free. 

The age and former services of the Earl of Warwick might 
now have well excused him from again encountering the fa- 
tigues of war ; yet, in the forty-third of Edward, upon intelli- 



* " He warred also in hethenes th^ee yeires, and brought with hytne the kynge's 
sone of Lettowe and crystened hyme in London, and named hyme Thomas after 
hymself." John Ross, published by Hearne, p. 233., 

3 



THOMAS BEAUCHAMP, 

gence that the English army, under the Duke of Lancaster and 
the Earl of Hereford, lay perishing, with famine and pestilenc^,. 
in their camp near Calais, and .yet declined fighting with the 
French, he hastily collected a small, but select, force, and sailed 
towards Calais. His approach was no sooner understood by. 
tjie enemy, than, although the French army had purposely: ad- 
vanced to give battle, they immediately retreated, and in such 
^janicy that they left their tents and provisions, and fled with 
great precipitation. The moment the, Earl landed, he ex-, 
pressed," in very warm terms,- his indignation at those whose 
councils, had' prevented the English from' coping with the., 
enemy, and' exclaimed, as in derision J (to use the words of 
Walsingham,) " EgO progredi et pugnare volo, dum adhuc panis 
Ahgiicanus in virorummeorum'ventribus remanet indigestus.". 
Not content' with thus relieving the English, he pursued the 
French' into their retreat, and wasted the country around 
Calais. This . last expiedition proved fatal to the Earl of War- 
wick. On his return, to Calais, he was seized with the pesti- 
lence, then, violently raging among the troops, and died on the 
thirteenth of November, 1370, leaving hohie, says Rous, equal to 
him, for military valdirr and devotion to his king and country. 

/By his wife, Catherine, daughter of Roger Mortimer, first 
Earl of March; who died a few weeks before her consort, he 
had seven sons and ten daughters, viz. Guy, who died before 
him, at Vendbsnie, and is buried in the chapel of the Three Kings, 
behind the altar of Trinity Abbey. His widow, who was Phi- 
Uppa, daughter to Henry Lord Ferrers, of Groby, and who had 
three daughters, all nuns, at Shuldham, in Norfolk, herself 
took a solemn vow of chastity, before Reginald Bryan, the theh' 
Bishop of "Worcester. 

2. Thomas, who succeeded his father. 

3. Reynburne, who left issue one daughter, Eleanor, mar 
ried to John Knight, of Hanslape, Esq. 

4 



EARL OF WARWICK. 

4. William, afterwards. Baifoh Ber^veiiny. 

5. John, \ 

6. Roger, > who died unmarried. 

7. Jerome, j 

The daughters were r, 

1. Catherine, a nun at Wroxall, in Warwickshire, who died 
in 1378, and was buried at Warwick. 

2. Maud, married to Roger de Clifford. 

3. Philippa, wife of Hugh, Earl of Stafford. 

4. Alice, married to John Beiauchamp, of Hache. 

5. Joan, wife of Ralp, Lord Basset, of Drayton. 

6. Isabel) wife first to John le Strange,, of Blackmore; se- 
condly to Robert de Ufford, Earl of Suffolk. 

7. Margaret, married to Guy de Mont all. 

8. Agnes, wife first to Cooksey, afterwards to — — 

Bardolph. , 

9. Juliana, died unmarried. 

10. Elizabeth, wife of Sir Thomas de Ufford. 

The body' of Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, was 
brought over from France, and interred, according to the direc- 
tions in his will, in the middle of the Choir of the Collegiate 
Church of St. Mary, at Warwick. The moniiinent is entirely 
of alabaster, with the exception of the moulded .top, .and 
finished, on the four side's, exactly in the same style, with 
pannels containing figures. On the top, repose the efiigies'of 
the Earl and his , Countess, their right hands joined.. He is 
represented. in' plate' airmour, nearly the same as that. of the 
Black Prince, his face exposed : his left hand, which is covered 
with a gauntlet, rests on the sword-hilt, and holds the right- 
-hand gauntlet ; on the opposite side he wears a dagger.^ The 
head rests on a double cushion, and at the feet is ah animal, 
probably intended to represent a bear. His Countess is habited 
in the fashion of the time, a reticulated head-dress ; open 

5 



THOMAS BEAUCHAMP. 

mantle, descending to the feet and fastened across the breast by 
a cord ; a robe, with long tight sleeves, reaching to the wrists, 
la,ced down to the waist, and drawn tight to display the figure, 
from whence it falls in straight folds as low as the feet, which 
rest against a dog couchant. The right hand, as already de- 
scribed, hold^ that of her husband, and the left rests upon her 
breast. The double cushion under the head, as well as that of 
the Earl's, is supported, at one corner, by an Angel. Round the 
sides of the tomb are thirty-six small figures within ornamental 
pannels, eleven on each side, and seven at each end, represent- 
ing, alternately, a male and female in the peculiar costume of 
the time ; under each figure is a shield, in Dugdale's time em- 
blazoned with the arms of the person represented. Notwith- 
standing that repeated coats of whitewash have obliterated the 
colours, and rendered it impossible, from any other source 
than the above authority, to identify the figures, they still 
possess considerable interest as illustrations of a great variety 
of costume. This monument, although in a tolerable state of 
preservation, has not altogether escaped injury. The moulded 
summit, which has already been described, is evidently the 
work of a subsequent period, and ill accords with the rest of 
the monument either as to style or materials. Several of the 
small figures on the sides have also undergone partial restora- 
tions, as have the angels supporting the cushions. 

Considering the admirable state in which the family monu- 
ments in the adjoining chapel are preserved, and the general 
care and attention which is paid to this Church, it is matter 
of equal surprise and regret that this very valuable monument 
should not be relifeved fi:om the repeated coats of whitewash 
with which it has been plaistered, and by which its beauty 
is so much obscured. 

6 



EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES. 

1330 1376. 

MONUMENT AT CANTERBURY. 

Edwardj surnamed the Black Prince, (in all probability from 
being clad in a black suit of mail), eldest son of Edward the 
Third of that name. King of England, by his Queen Philippa, 
youngest daughter of William, third Count of HoUande and 
Hainault, was born at Woodstock on the 15th of June, 1330. 
From the moment of his birth, his personal jaeauty, as well as 
the exact proportions and muscular istrength of his infant formi 
gave the happiest presage of his future prowess, and the coun- 
try hailed, with joy and acclamation, an event so important to 
the national prosperity. 

The education of the youthful prince was entrusted to Walter 
Burley, who had also been tutor to the king. He was a fellow 
of Merton College, in Oxford, and one of the most learned 
scholars of those times. It is scarcely to be imagined, at a pe- 
riod when deeds of chivalry and feats at arms were alone consi- 
dered capable of adding dignity to, the character of the nobility, 
that much time could be devoted to the acquirement of scho- 
lastic information, but the whole tenor of the Prince of Wales's 
life, and the admirable and very rare examples of magnanimity 
and moderation which he displayed in moments of unequalled 
trial, fully prove to us, that the mind of the royal pupil was 
cultivated with no less care than wisdom, and, we may a:dd, with 
a success that reflects no mean credit on the exertions of his 
venerable preceptor. 

In 1333, Prince Edward had a grant of the Earldom of Ches- 
ter, and in 1337, he was created Duke of Cornwall, being the 
first person in England upon whom that dignity was conferred. 

1 



EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES. 

In 1343, he was created Prince of Wales, and in less than three 
years from that time, and at the commencement of the sixteenth 
of his age, we find him thirsting for military glory, and pre- 
pared for those deeds at arms, which then excited the admira- 
tion of the world, and have, in after days, rendered his fame 
immortal. 

Accompanying his father into France, he received the honour 
of knighthood immediately upon landing, nor did he long want 
a fit opportunity to signalize himself. The battle of Crecy took 
place immediately after, and an anecdote related by Froissart, 
and preserved by all cpnteniporary historians, is highly illustra- 
tive of the chivalrous character of the age. 

Early in the day, some French, Germans, and Savoyards, had 
broken through the archers of the prince's battalion, and en- 
gaged with the men at arms ; upon which the second battalion 
came to his aid, " the whiche was tyme, (says Lord Berners,) 
for they had as then muche to do," otherwise he would have 
been hard pressed. The first division, seeing the danger they 
were in, sent a knight. Sir Thomas Norwich, in great haste to the 
king of England. — " Sire," gaid he, " the Earl of Warwick, the 
Lord Stafford, the Lord Reginald Cobham, and the others who 
are about your son, are vigorously attacked by the French, and 
they entreat that you would come to their assistance, for if their 
number^ should increase, they fear he will have too much to do." 
" Is my son then dead? or unhorsed? or so much wounded, 
that he can nq longer defend himself?" asked the king. " Not 
so, thank God," replied the knight ; " the young prince still lives, 
but he is in so hot an engagement, that he has great need of 
help."—" Return then, (said the king) to him, and to those who 
have sent you, and tell th6m, from me, that I charge them not 
to send again for me this day, so long as my son hath life.: and 
tell them, that I command them to let my boy w'm his spurs ; 
for I am determined, if it please God, that fill the glory and 
honour of this day shall be given to him, and to those into 
whose care I haye entrusted him." The historian informs us, 

2 



EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES. 

that the Prince was greatly encouraged at this answer, and the 
nobles as bitterly repented that they had implored assistance 
from the King. It was at this memorable engagement, that the 
Prince won and adopted the standard and motto of the King of 
Bohemia, JCH DIEN, with a plume of three ostrich feathers, 
a crest and motto since worn by all succeeding heirs apparent 
to the Elnglish throne. 

Nor was the heroic courage of the Prince less conspicuous at 
the battle of Poictiers, a day fatal to the glory of France, but 
replete with honour to the English character. When Edward 
found that all negociation was at an end, and an engagement in- 
evitable, he rode along the ranks of his little army, and thus ad- 
dressed them : " Although, gentlemen, we be an inconsiderable 
body when compared with the numbers of our enemies, yet let 
us not be cast down on that account, for victory does not always 
follow number ; it is in the hands of Almighty God to bestow 
it as he pleases. If, through good fortune and his pleasure, the 
day be ours, we shall gain the greatest honour and glory in this 
world : if the contrary should happen, and we die in our just 
quarrel, it is paying a debt we all owe somewhat sooner, but far 
more honourably, and I have the king my father, and my bre- 
thren, and you have all relations, friends, and countrymen, who 
will avenge our deaths. — Wherefore, for God's sake, be of good 
courage, and combat manfully ; for, if it please Him and St. 
George, I will this day perform the part of a true knight, and 
England shall never have to pay my ransom." 

At the conclusion of this splendid victory, the Prince of 
Wales rendered to his prisoner King John, the noblest testimo- 
nies of respect and veneration, and displayed a greatness of 
soul, and an example of humanity and moderation honourable 
to human nature. When the royal captive first appeared before 
him, the Prince (says Froissart) made a very low obeisance, and 
eommanding wine and spices to be brought, tendered them with 
his own hands to the king; at the same time administering all 
the consolation he was able to offer, in the kindest and most 

3 



EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES, 

soothing speeches. At an entertainment given on the same 
evening, he constantly refused to sit dovi^n at table with the 
king, although continually entreated to do so, alleging, that he 
was unworthy of-so great an honour ; and when he perceived 
his guest depressed at the remembrance of his sad reverses, he 
endeavoured to cheer him, by the kindest and most generous 
acknowledgments of his prowess. " Your majesty, (said he,) has 
great reason to rejoice, although the day was not yours ; for you 
have obtained in it the highest fame of valour, and surpassed 
all the best and bravest warriors in France. Nor do I say this 
to flatter your sorrow, nor to bring your disasters to your re- 
membrance, since all those of our party, who have seen what 
every one performed, are unanimously agreed in this just sen- 
tence, namely, to award the prize and chaplet unto your majes- 
ty's person." At the end of his speech, says a French writer, 
murmurs of praise were heard on every side ; nor indeed can 
we be surprised that such wonderful moderation and humility in 
so youthful a conqueror, after so unparalleled a victory, should 
have struck the French with admiration of his virtues. They 
exclaimed, that he had spoken nobly, and, with one accord, pro- 
nounced him the most amiable, as well as the most valiant, 
Prince in Christendom. 

The last enterprize, in which the Prince of Wales bore a 
distinguished part, was in an attempt to restore Pedro King 
of Castile, who had been deprived of his throne by his base 
brother Henry, Earl of Transtamare. In this expedition he was 
again successful, and, after a fierce engagement at Najara, 
decided the fate of the kingdom; for the Spaniards, terrified at 
their defeat, voluntarily returned to their allegiance, and, with 
one consent, accepted Pedro as their lawful Sovereign. This ex- 
ploit, however, was attended with the most fatal consequences, 
for Prince Edward contracted a disease in Spain which even- 
tually undermined his constitution, and at length terminated 
his life. Had it not been for this illness, he would undoubtedly 
have brought his army against Paris, whither he had himself 

4 



EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES. 

been summoned by the French King, to answer certain com- 
plaints made against his taxes and impositions as Prince of 
Aquitain. The reply made by Edward to the French King's 
messengers is highly characteristic: "Gentlemen," said he, 
his countenance glowing with anger and disdain, " we will 
gladly go to Paris to our uncle, since he hath thus handsomely 
invited us ; but be assured that it shall be with helmet on our 
head, and sixty thousand men in our company." 

The complaint, the first symptoms of which Prince Edward 
felt during his Spanish expedition, was, according to the super- 
stition of the day, ascribed by some to enchantment, and by 
others to poison, but it is pretty generally allowed to have been 
a; dropsy, which, after a lingering illness, terminated in a calen- 
.ture or burning fever, from which no skill could relieve him. 
He died on Trinity Sunday, the eighth of June, 1376, at the age 
of forty-six. 

Thus fell " the flower of English chivalry," and it would be 
superfluous in this place to attempt any delineation of his ad- 
mirable and exalted character. It has been remarked, that the 
English dreaded no invasion whilst he lived, were confident of 
success in every engagement where he commanded, and served 
under his banner with an ardor and devotion which could not 
but assure a victorious issue. 

He married Joan, Countess of Kent, the relict of Sir Thomas 
Holland, and one of the most beautiful women of that age ; by 
her he left only one son, Richard, so named from his godfather 
the King of Armenia. He was born in 1366-7, at Bourdeaux, 
and succeeded his grandfather in the throne of England ; a 
throne which the exploits of his father had so mainly contributed 
to establish. 

We shall conclude the biographical portion of this article 
with a translation (never before printed) of , a curious letter from 
the Black Prince to Reginald de Briene, or Brian, Bishop of 
Worcester, giving an account of the battle of Poictiers, the.ori- 

5 



EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES. 

ginal of which, in Norman French, is preserved in the Episcopal 
Register of Bishop Brian, fol. 113. 

" Reverend Father in God, and very dear Friend. 
"We return you our hearty thanks, in as much as we have 
heard that you have behaved so well and so naturally towards 
us, in praying to God for us and our undertaking; and we are 
well satisfied, that in consequence of your devout prayers and 
thos^ of others, God has vouchsafed to aid us in all our enter- 
prizes ; for which we are daily bound to thank him, praying that 
you, on your part, would likewise do so, continuing to act 
towards us as you have hitherto done, for which we hold our- 
selves greatly bound to you. And, reverend father, with re- 
gard to our estate, concerning which we think you, craving 
your pardon, desire to hear good news, we would have you 
know that at the time of writing these, we were well, happy, 
and in good plight, thanks be to God, which same may he en- 
able us, at all times, to hear and know concerning you, and 
touching which be so kind as to certify us by your letters, and 
as often as you can conveniently send news by travellers to 
these parts. We would have you know, that on the eve of the 
translation of Saint Thomas of Canterbury, we began to march 
with our forces towards the parts of France, principally on ac- 
count of having heard of the arrival of our very honoured 
Lord and Father the King in those parts, we stationed ourselves 
before Burges in Berya, Orleans, and Tours, and received in- 
telligence that the King of France had come to engage with us 
with vast forces near those borders, and we approached so that 
the battle was fought between us in such a manner, that the 
enemy were discomfited, thanks be to God, and the said King, 
his son, and several great men were taken and killed, whose 
names we send you by oijr very dear esquire Mr. Roger de 
Cottesford, the bearer of these. Reverend Father in God, 
and our very dear friend, may the Holy Spirit ever preserve 
you. Given under our seal at Bourdeaux, the twentieth day of 
October." 

6 




L>Tri::'u ^ E-n^xa^^jd b^' r.dw^Llc 



riFlIST'Qjff JEBWAIEIB -smw. 18.1LArCJE IPmUK'Sl 






.tublishtzd, July 1. 1324- 1a' ITiJ.rdA7u!,Triphoak&L£pi2rd.,TinshiiTy Square, Laiidorv. 



EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES. 

The remains of Edward the Black Prince are deposited under 
an arch dividing the centre from the south aisle of that portion 
of Canterbury Cathedral, which extends eastward from the 
Choir, and is called Trinity Chapel. The place of his interment 
was his own choice, for by his last will, signed the day only 
before his death, be desired that he might be buried in the 
Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity at Canterbury ; and, as 
a peculiar token of respect to his memory, both Houses pf Par- 
liament attended bis corpse through the city of London. His 
monument consists qf an altar tomb of grey or Sussex marble, 
the top plated with brass, on which, under a canopy of wood, 
reposes the effigies of the Prince executed in brass, gilt and 
burnished. In each of the compartments rpund the sides of the 
tomb are shields of brass enamelled, alternately, the royal 
arms, quarterly France and England, surmounted with a file of 
three points ; and the badge of the Prince three ostrich feathers 
or, on a field sable. Over each of the shields is fixed a scroll of 
brass enamelled, alternately, those over the arms having the 
motto HouMONT, and those over the badges Ich Diene, The 
latter motto is also inscribed on a labiel placed across the points, 
or quill end, of the several ostrich feathers on the shields. Of 
these shields there are sixteen^ corresponding with the number 
of compartments into which the sides and ends of the tomb are 
divided, six on each side and two at each end. The effigy is 
most admirably finished, and still in a state of pristine perfec- 
tion, with the exception of the coloured stones, which have been 
taken from the collets round tlje circle of the coronet, and the 
dagger, which was originally fixed to the right side of the belt. 
The sword, which was suspended from the left side> has h6en 
disengaged, an4 now lies loose by the figure. The armour is 
exceedingly interesting, but we must refer our description of 
this portion of the monument to the introductory essay, where 
the subject will be more attentively considered. It may not, 
however, be irrelevant to the accompanying memoir, to ob- 
serve, that the opening of the helmet displays a countenance 

7 



EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES. 

remarkable for features of the finest proportion, and with an ex- 
pression at once mild, dignified, and manly. It possesses tod aii 
individuality of character, if we may so express ourselves, which 
furnishes a decisive proof of being a faithful portraiture of the 
distinguished person it professes to represent. The helndet is 
surmounted by a cap of maintenance, on which is placed the 
crest. In the will of the Prince he particularly directs that this 
shall be a leopard : the animal on the monument has a decidedly 
long mane, carefully platted, and resembles rather a lion than a 
leopard, with a crown on the head, and a label of three points 
round the neck. These are particulars not named in the will, 
and whether they may be deemed a departure from the instruc- 
tions, or whether they have arisen from the ignorance of the 
artist as to the proper mode of representing a leopard, remains 
doubtful. At his feet is an animal couchant ; it has been called 
a lioness, but is not sufficiently characterized to enable us to as- 
sign to it, with certainty, any particular name. The enamelling 
of the belt, straps of the spurs, and scabbard of the sword, remain 
perfect. The belt consists of a row of circular ornaments meet- 
ing in a central quatrefoil, the centre of each circle has what 
is called a leopard, but what more resembles a lion's head and 
the quatrefoil, than the entire animal, enamelled gold on a blue 
ground. The straps of the spurs are enamelled blue in square 
moulded compartments ; and the sword has a row of ornamented 
quatrefoils, nine in number, running nearly the length of the 
scabbard, the centre of each quatrefoil enamelled blue. In the 
circle of the pummel is also a leopard or lion's head in gold on 
a blue ground, and at the top of the scabbard are two quatre- 
foils, having flowers in the centre relieved by the same colour. 
Round the edge of the slab on which the effigy lies, is the fol- 
lowing inscription in raised gothic letters of brass, arranged in 
double lines : 

8 



EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES. 

®S S(st le noble pfnce Mom% (BtHantn, 
aisne? filf iru tres noble IRog ^toartr 'STiers; faHis 
^ince&'glptoine $:: Ke Gales, Buc be aTomfDaille, 
$r ©ounte ie (JDestre, g( morust en la jftitz toe la 
^rfnfte, ^eatoft le biiU four Ue 3|uBn Tan tit ffirace 
itlfl ^rois cens septante %i%im. Halme tue qi Mien 
tixMetde. ^men. 

^u (li passe? oue boutjge dose 
$ar la ou te Corps tepose. 
intent te q^e te tritag, 
Sbg come te irire le sag. 
^iel lome tu es auttel fu, 
^u seras ttel tomme fe su. 

39e la mort ne pensai fe mitt 
^ant tome fabog la bk : 
lEntre aboi gtanto Uttj^esse, 
IBont ie s fis srantr noblesse, 
^erre, iWesons, gtanti ^resor, 
Braps, iSTj^fbattx, Urgent ix d^x. 

iStes ore su ies pontes $;: tj^etifs 

^fonaenlatrcfifs. 

i^a ffiranb 33eaute est tout alee; 

Mb. tj^ar est tout gastee. 

i^oult est estrott ma meson, 

lEn mof na si berfte non : 

IStsCotemebeisse?, 

^e ne ^uitre pas pe bous &etsse^ 

(Ste |e eusse onpes Ibome este 

^i su te ore be tant tgangee. 

^our Bteu prie? au Celestien lOog, 
Ode mertie ait toe I'alme toe mog. 
^ott? ceulx qe pur mog prieront 
®tt a Bieu m'attortoeront, 
iSieu Ies tnette en son ^aragtois 
<Bn nul ne poet estre tj^etifs. 

9 



EDWARD, PRINCJE OF WALES. 

The canopy, which extends between the two columns support- 
ing the arch under which the monument is placed, has been deco- 
rated with painting. The quatrefoil under each of the battle- 
ments on the summit is in colour; oh the ceiling are faint traces 
of a representation of the Deity sustaining the Son on the cross ; 
and at the angles are the symbols of the four Evangelists. Over 
the wooden canopy, and suspended from an iron rod, hang the 
helmet, crest, surcoat embroidered with the arms of France and 
England, without the file, gauntlets, and scabbard of the sword 
of the deceased : the sword itself is said to have been taken away 
by Cromwell. Affixed to the column at the head of the tomb, 
is the wooden shield, plated with strong leather, and embossed 
with the royal arms, as on thfe surcoat, without the file. As these 
remains, although much mutilated, are undoubtedly genuine, 
they will be of great importance in illustrating the subject of an- 
tient armour, and the particular description of them is therefore 
deferred to the close of the work. The tomb is surrounded by a 
strong iron fence of Gothic design, which has been omitted in the 
accompanying plate, for the purpose of better displaying the ar- 
chitectural beauties of the monument ; a small portion of a si- 
milar fence, surrounding the adjoining monument of archbishop 
Courtnay, is however introduced, from which the style of that 
surrounding the tomb of the Black Prince may be well' under- 
stood. 

Upon the whole it may be observed, that the monument of the 
Black Prince, although not remarkable for richness of design, 
may, from its connexion with the illustrious individual it has 
been raised to commemorate, and the extreme beauty of the 
workmanship, rank amongst the most valuable monumental re- 
mains which this, or any other, country can produce. 

10 




L'Ti-wn A^ Engraved by Edw.BIore. 



nworsm 



IN "WESTMINSTER ABBF.Y. 



I'nvjf 



FublLshid Nov7i.LS2^!^ fy Har,ijyru7,T''cpkook &:LspLzrd.Firisbu:rv SQuart.London . 



EDWARD THE THIRD, 

KING OF ENGLAND. 

1312 1377. 

MONUMENT AT WESTMINSTER. 

Edward of Windsor, eldest son of Edward the Second of 
that name surnamed Carnarvon, by Isabella, daughter of 
Philip King of France, was born in the castle at Windsor, on 
Monday next after the feast of St. Martin, being the thirteenth 
of November, 1312, which was the sixth of his father's reign. 
He was baptized Edward in conformity with the wishes of the 
English nobility, his uncle Prince Lewis of France, at that time 
on a visit to his sister in the English court, in vain using every 
argument and entreaty that he might be named after his mater- 
nal grandfather. King Philip. Within a few days of his birth, 
he received from his father a grant of the counties of Chester 
and Flint, with the exception of certain manors, and was styled 
by the King, " Edvardus Cqmes Cestrise, filius noster charis- 
simus." Walsingham relates, that King Edward, who had, pre- 
viously to the birth of this infant, been dejected and cast down, 
on account of the death of his unworthy favourite Piers 
Gaveston, was roused into spirits by the new character he was 
called on to assume, and from that day was restored to happi- 
ness and activity. 

It is affirmed by Brian Twyne, a good antiquary, and one on 
whose statements reliance may generally be placed, that Wal- 
ter Burley was tutor to the young Prince; but the generally 

1 



EDWARD THE THIRD, 

received opinion is, that his education was superintended by- 
Richard Angerville, or de Bury, as he is usually called from 
the place of his birth, who was also a member of the university 
of Oxford, and an accomplished scholar, as well as a person of 
extraordinary abilities. For this and other services he was 
afterwards made keeper of the privy seal, treasurer of England, 
then dean of Wells, and finally lord chancellor, and bishop of 
Durham. 

In a parliament holden at York, in the 16th of his father's 
reign, Edward was created Prince of Wales, a title he does not 
appear to have assumed, as it occurs in no public instrument ; 
and the reason usually assigned is, that he shortly after 
was invested with the Dukedom of Aquitain. The King, his fa- 
ther, having been often summoned to do the customary homage 
for his possessions in France, and having as often delayed to 
perform it, it was, at length, concluded, that he should traiisfer 
his right and title to the Prince, who was to do homage" in his 
own person for these his newly-acquired dignities ; and for this 
purpose he passed over into France, accompanied by the 
Queen his mother, September'12, 19 Edward 11. ' It was dur- 
ing this visit that Isabella, partly from policy and partly from 
fear, contracted him in marriage to Philippa, daughter of Wil- 
liam Count of Hollande and Hainault. " 

The occurrences that led to the elevation of Edward to the 
throne of his father, belong rather to the historian than the bio- 
grapher, nor indeed will the limits of the present work allow us 
to enter upon their consideration. The monarch, weak and 
self-willed, had now filled the measure of his misconduct, arid 
being deposed by the authority of parliament, the Prince was 
nominated, by the same authority, to succeed to the throne of 
England. It is upon record, however, that, touched with com- 
passion at his parent's situatiori, he refiised to accept the crown, 
or to enter upon the administration of a^airs, until the King 

2 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

.should have consented to the measure; and this refusal he 
bound himself to observe by a solemn vow. The manner in 
w^hich the unfortunate Edward's resignation was obtained is 
well known; it was, however, obtained; and the young Prince, 
then only eleven years old, ascended to the throne : he was 
proclaimed King oh the twenty-fifth of January, 1326 ; and on 
the first of February, having previously been girded with the 
sword of knighthood by the hands of Henry, Earl of Lancaster, 
was crowned at Westminster, by Walter Reginald, Archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

Of a reign so illustrious and important in the annals of this 
kingdom, as that of Edward the Third, we cannot offer even the 
faintest sketch. The victories of Cressy and Poictiers, the 
splendid atchievements of the Black Prince, the naval superi- 
ority of the country, then for the first time established, and the 
improvements that took place both in our external commerce 
and internal regulations, contribute to render this sera one of 
the most conspicuous in British history; and, as has been well 
observed by a recent and very accurate historian, Mr. Sharon 
Turner, it was then that our parliament. enjoyed, in full and up- 
right exercise, those constitutional powers, which ; the nation 
has long learnt to venerate as its best inheritance, but which 
weaker sovereigns have, too eagerly, contested. The close of 
Edward's reign forms a melancholy contrast with its commence- 
ment and progress. From the moment of the Black Prince's 
death, his affairs appear to have declined ; disaster followed 
close upon disaster ; France, the scene of his former glory, be- 
came little less than a monument of his disgrace, for he had the 
mortification of living to see nearly all his possessions in that 
country wrested from his crown ; possessions which had been 
attained at such an expense of blood and treasure, and the 
loss of which must have been regarded by the nation as the hu- 
miliating consequence of their sovereign's mismanagement. 

3 



EDWARD THE THIRD, 

Edward the Third died at Sheene, on the twenty-first of 
June, 1377, being then in his sixty-fifth year. Walsingham has 
preserved an anecdote of his last moments, which, if it be true, 
reads an awful lesson to the dissolute and immoral. He says, 
that Alice Peers, who was reputed to be the King's mistress, 
and who was with him in his dying moments, permitted none of 
the religious persons of his household tq approach him, and to 
the last flattered him that there was no danger, and that he 
would recover. When, however, his speech failed him, and the 
hand of death was visibly approaching, she drew the rings from 
his fingers and left him ; the attendants followed her example ; 
heedless of the dying agonies of their lord, they too commenced 
the work of pillage, and departed. In this situation he was 
found by the chaplain of the palace, who, with true Christian 
piety and fortitude, admonished him to have recourse to God 
in penitence and prayer. The feeble King, somewhat awakened 
from the lethargy in which his faithless attendants had left 
him, obeyed the charitable call, and taking the crucifix in his 
hands, kissed it with much fervor, and faintly pronouncing the 
name of Jesus, expired. Such is Walsingham's account, which 
has been repeatedly credited by all historians to the present time, 
with the exception, we believe, of Joshua Barnes. The argument 
of the Cambridge professor is not unworthy of attention. He 
urges, that had she been guilty of so great depravity, she would, 
doubtless, have been accused of it before parliament in the 
year following the king's death ; " because, if she did it before 
witnesses, it must have come out, and then could not but have 
been fatal to her ; and if not, it could not have been known," Cer- 
tain it is, that no such charge was adduced against her, even 
when her most inveterate enemies were raking up all that could 
be brought forward to her prejudice, and would scarcely have 
omitted that which, if established, would have entirely over- 
whelmed her. In respect to the other accusations, of a public 

4 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

nature, made against her, it is well to hear Sir Robert Cotton, 
who, when he records the judgment of the Lords, which was 
banishment, and the forfeiture of all her lands and other posses- 
sions, adds, that " the record, which is very long, proves no 
such heinous matter against her ; only it shews, how she was 
in such credit with King Edward, that she sat at his bed's head, 
when others were fain to stand at the chamber door, and that 
she moved those things unto him, which they of the privy cham- 
ber durst not : and further, the two points for which she was con- 
demned, seemed very honest : only her misfortune was, that she was 
friendly to many, but all were not so to her." Far be it from 
us to palliate vice or to advocate the cause of the guilty, but it 
is due to justice as well as to humanity, before we credit all the 
accusations against this unfortunate female, to remember, that 
she afterwards became the wife of the Lord Windsor, which 
could scarcely have been the case, had her character been so 
notoriously infamous as Walsingham would represent her ; and 
as for the disgrace that may attach to her memory from the 
judgment entered against her by the Lords, that will in some 
measure be removed by the fact of this very judgment having 
been reversed, and a restitution made of the lands and posses- 
sions heretofore forfeited, early in the next reign. 

Neglected, however, as we are assured King Edward was 
on his death-bed, his funeral was solemnized with more than 
common magnificence. The body was brought with great 
pomp from Sheene to Westminster, his three sons, John of 
Gaunt, Edmund of Langley, and Thomas of Woodstock, to- 
gether with his son-in-law, John Duke of Bretagne, attending 
as chief mourners, accompanied by all the prelates and barons 
of England. Having passed on an open car, through crowds of 
people, who, as Froissart assures us, with tears and lamenta- 
tions, bewailed the death of their King, it was deposited in the 
abbey church of Westminster, in compliance with the request 

5 



EDWARD THE THIRD, 

of Queen Philippa, near to the spot where she herself was laid, 
and a sumptuous monument was erected to his memory. 

This monument stands on the south side of the Confessor's 
Chapel, under an arch which divides it from the side-aisle of the 
choir. It consists of an altar-tomb of grey Petworth marble, 
each side divided into six niches with intermediate tracery, 
which is carried round the ends of the tomb. In the niches on 
the south side there still remain small figures of brass, gilt, de- 
signed with great taste, and beautifully wrought : these repre- 
sent six of the children of the monarch ; there were six, also, 
on the north side, which, we regret to add, no longer remain. 
Underneath each of these figures was originally a shield of 
brass,, enamelled, containing the armorial ensigns of the corres- 
ponding figure, but of these shields three only now remain on 
the south side : 

1. Quarterly, France and England., under a label of three 
points. The figure, there can be little doubt, represents the 
Black Prince, who is habited in a long cloak descending to the 
feet, the hair short, and with a pointed beard. 

2. Carlisle and Leon impaling France and England, A fe- 
male figure in a close dress, surmounted by a mantle, with stiff 
reticulated head-dress, and long sleeves. Probably Joan de la 
Tour, the second daughter. 

3. France and.England, under a label of three points, charged 
with cantons ermine, A male figure in a cloak, which is thrown 
back over the left shoulder. Probably Lionel Duke of Cla- 
rence, third son. 

The other shields having been torn away, it is impossible, at 
this time, to appropriate, with any certainty, the remaining fi- 
gures to the persons they are supposed to represent ; nor, in- 
deed, is it at^ all clear that the two now viewed in an eastern 
direction occupy their original situations ; as the pedestals on 
which they once stood have been destroyed, and the figures 

6 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

themselves evidently disengaged from their fastenings. From 
other sources, however, we may collect that the whole groupe 
consisted, in addition to those already mentioned, of the fol- 
lowing : 

4. Edmund of Langley, fifth son. 

5. Mary, Duchess of Bretagne, fourth daughter. 

6. William of Hatfield, second son. 

These are supposed to be the three remaining figures on the 
south side. Those on the north side were, 

7. Isabel, Lady Coucy, first daughter. 

8. William of Windsor, sixth son. 

9. John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son. 

10. Blanch de la Tour, third daughter. 

11. Margaret, Countess of Pembroke, fifth daughter. 

12. Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, seventh and 
youngest son. 

The chapel of the Confessor being raised considerably above 
the level of the side-aisle, this monument, in common with all 
those erected in the sanie situation, has, on the side adjoining 
the aisle, a lofty moulded base, divided into four square com- 
partments of quatrefoils, each enclosing a large metal shield 
enamelled; the first with the arms of St. George, the second 
and fourth (the third having been torn away) with those, of 
France and England. 

The tomb is covered with a table of brass gilt, on which reposes 
the efl&gy of the monarch, in the same metal, surrounded by a 
shrine consisting of various small figures, each surmounted by 
very beautiful tabernacle work, and the whole terminating over 
the head of the statue in a rich Gothic canopy: the material of 
which this splendid termination to the monument of Edward is 
composed is commonly said to be brass, but it is doubtless of 
a similar metal with that called latten, in the agreement be- 
tween the executors of Lord Warwick and the artisans em- 

7 



EDWARD THE THIRD, 

ployed in the erection of that nobleman's tomb ; like that, also, 
it has been highly gilt, although time, and want of proper at^ 
tention, have nearly obliterated its lustre. On the verge of 
the metal table, beginning at the north side, is the following 
metrical inscription : 

Hie 50«tts anglomm, Jflos Ulegum ^reterttorunt, 
JForma iFuturorum, 33itx tlmem, ^ax ^opulorum, 
■STrnfus @Ut>ar&u», megnt tomplens ^ubtleum. 
Inbfttus f ar&tts, JSellfs potens JWacfiabJum. 
^wspjretium bfxtt, megnum ^tetat« rebixtt : 
^rmtpotens xexiti \m ®«Io (cdite Bex) sit. 

And, at the bottom, (as appears from Gay wood's print of the 
tomb,) although long since worn away, 

Tertius Edvardus Fama super Mthera notus. 
Pugria pro Patria. 
MCCCLXXVII. 

The effigy of the King is attired in richly embroidered robes J 
the hair and beard flowing, full, and slightly curled. The visage 
is long, and the countenance apparently bears marks of care 
and age, which it may well do, if, as Mr. Gough imagines, the fi- 
gure was a counterpart of the body as it was interred. Each hand 
retains the remains of a sceptre, which, as well as the cushion 
which supported the head, and a lion which was under the feet 
in Sandford's time, have long since disappeared. Over the 
tomb, and extending between the columns that support the 
arch under which the monument is placed, is a wooden canopy 
exquisitely designed and tolerably perfect, with the exception 
of the finials of the individual arches of which it is composed, 
and another row of ornamental arches which were formerly in 
front of those at present remaining, and to which the springings 
of those now lost are still attached. 

8 




EffFiiOT ®iF KKSfis- ErowAmro the THimB. 

in Wpstmiimster Ablbey. 

Ihihlishj^/^ Srf' !'l<7.J>'izC'. fy Warding. Triplioc'kilffiaj-d.Fijtsbur. .S.jum->!,Iondort. 






KING OF ENGLAND. 

Close to the tomb of King Edward are a sword and shield, 
both of large dimensions, which are said to have belonged to 
that monarch : we are, however, inclined to believe, that they 
appertain to a somewhat later period. 

It is, indeed, to be regretted, that this noble monument 
should not have been handed down to us in a more perfect 
state : time, however, together with its powerful allies, vio- 
lence and neglect, have left us a wreck only of what, when per- 
fect, was a truly magnificent structure, and well worthy of an 
English monarch. It is to be hoped, and, which is more, we now 
firmly believe, that the spirit which led to the partial destruc- 
tion of these venerable remains has long since passed away; and, 
we trust, that the improved feeling of the present day will be 
displayed, not by arbitrary restorations, and additions unwar- 
ranted by any legitimate authority, but rather by a scrupulous 
care to preserve, and a religious disposition to protect, that 
which still exists of this once splendid memorial to departed 
royalty. 

9 




J 3.'-Ti •• Ell T-j"'-i t ri% ^Ll rv- 



IN rURHAM CATHF.DKAI, 




/','.,/■''.' I <'-'Jii:a I.L-'.--^-. hi II.irdirL.i.Tii.f'ii''L'L\^- I.tjfi2.riL Fut.rhta-] Sqit-ircLor/lyn 



THOMAS HATFIELD, 

BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

Died 1381. 
monumekt at durham. 

Thomas Hatfield, second son of Sir Walter Hatfield, of Hat- 
field, in Holdernesse, was dected to the then vacant see of 
Durham on the eighth day of May, 1345, being the festival of 
St. John of Beverley. 

As the younger branch of an ancient and very honourable 
family. Bishop Hatfield was, in all probability, destined, at an 
early period, for the church; and although no records now 
exist from which we may become acquainted with the first 
years of this powerful ecclesiastic, yet there seems every reason 
to conjecture that he received his education at Oxford, and in 
the house founded about the year 1290 by Richard de Hoton, 
the then prior, and the monks of Durham priory, fpr the 
younger members of their order. To this foundation, which 
went by the name of Durham College, and was situaied on the 
spot where Trinity now stands, Hatfield, in after life, became a , 
munificent benefactor, endowing it with the yearly revenue of 
two hundred marcs, for the support of eight Benedictine monks 
and eight secular scholars. 

It would be no easy task to trace Bishop Hatfield through 
his early preferments to the time of his becoming, first the con- 
fidential servant of his sovereign, and lastly the powerful prelate 
of the North ; for De Chambre, and other early writers on Dur- 
ham and its see, make no mention of the Bishop till he became 
possessor of the mitre. Mr. Surtees indeed, in his recent 

1 



THOMAS HATFIELD, 

" History of Durham," tells us, from Newcourt, that he held 
the prebend of Oxgate, in Middlesex, and the rectory of Deb- 
den, in Essex: the latter , of which he resigned in 1336. To 
these we may add, on other authority, the prebend of Lidington 
in the church of Lincoln, to which he. was inducted in 1342; 
that of Buckden in the same cathedral, which he received in 
1344 ; as well as the prebend of Fryday thorp, in the church of 
York. The two last preferments he enjoyed at the time of his 
promotion to the see of Durham. 

The character of Hatfield, when he was selected by the king 
for this extraordinary advancement, is said to have been more 
consonant to that of a martial chieftain than an ecclesiastical 
dignitary. Walsingham has preserved an anecdote to this 
effect : — the story is not only amusing, but it serves to shew 
at how great a price the court of Rome, even at that time, was 
willing. to purchase the good humour of the English monarch. 
Edward, on the death of Bishop Bury, took care to secure the 
validity of his new appointment, by procuring the concurrence 
of the Roman Pontiff, and accordingly solicited the nomination 
of Hatfield, which was willingly acceded to. When some of 
the Cardinals objected to the newly-proposed bishop, as being 
a man of less . strict, and more laical habits, than were con- 
sistent with such a situation, the Pope replied, " Had the King 
of England asked me for the mitre to bestow it upon an ass, he 
should have been gratified ;" arid Hatfield was accordingly 
elected. It is probable indeed, that his knowledge of the 
world, his matured judgement, high spirit, and martial accom- 
plishments, recommended him to his sovereign as a fit depository 
of the extraordinary powers which encircled the Northern mitre. 
Edward, who had long known and valued him, styles him, in a 
letter to the Pope, written in 1345, " secretarius noster caris- 
simus," and evidently considered the appointment a matter of 
importance and good policy. The loyalty and personal devotion 
of Hatfield had often been called forth: in 1342, as we learn 
from a record preserved in the Foedera, he was about to join 

2 



BISHOP P¥ DURHAM. 

his sovereign then in France, with twenty men at arms, and the 
year after his consecration he appeared at the siege of Calais 
with eighty archers. Nor were 'such habits, even in a mitred 
noble, inconsistent with the character of the age, and they 
were highly important to the royal cause in the remote and 
turbulent, as well as exposed, district over which Bishop Hat- 
field was selected to preside. In little more than a year after 
his consecration, he was called on to take the field against -DaVid 
Bruce ; who, seizing the opportunity of Edward's absence in 
France, had passed the border, and entering England by the 
Western marches, advanced with a very powerful army, spread' 
ing slaughter and desolation around him. The Bishop of Dur- 
ham was among the first to oppose, the invaders. In conjunction 
with the Archbishop of York, the Bishops of Lincoln and 
Carlisle, the Lords Neville and Percy, and the Sheriffs of York 
and Northumberland, an army of sixteen thousand men was 
speedily assembled, an engagement ensued, and the Scottish 
King, together with the Earls of Fife and Monteith, and Sir 
William Douglas, were made prisoners, and a long list of the 
most illustrious among the Scottish nobility slain, at the cele- 
brated victory of Neville's Cross; a victory in which, if we may 
credit Froissart, Bishop Hatfield and the Lord Percy led the 
first battle. 

After this important success, it does not appear, that any 
other events of a warlike nature occurred to disturb the -peace 
of Hatfield's pontificate. He appears as a witness to the 
Charter and all the other instruments connected with the sur- 
render of the crown of Scotland by Edward Balliol, but he en- 
gaged in no political intrigue, and his name only once occurs as 
a compiissioner on the Scottish border. His life seems to have 
been occupied in fulfilling the duties of his exalted station : 
when absent from his see, in attendance upon his sovereign, or 
assisting in his place in parliament ; when present, in regulating 
the affairs of his widely extending diocese, and in the exercise 
of those virtues of hospitality and almsgiving more peculiarly 

3 



THOMAS HATFIELD, 

appropriate to the episcopal character. The see of Durham, 
says Mr. Surtees, (and we would here express our acknowledge 
ments for the assistance we have frequently derived from his 
very valuable work,) lost nothing of its dignity under his firm 
and vigorous administration. Like his predecessor. Bury, he 
maintained a princely hospitality, and dispensed a daily and ex- 
tended charity. He was open, generous, and sincere ; to his 
subjects, just and beneficent; to his dependants, liberal and 
indulgent ; yet when opposed, haughty and untractable ; impa- 
tient of controul, tenacious of rank, and jealous to excess of any 
infringement on the privileges of the church. In person, he is 
described by De Chambre, as tall -and unbending under the 
load of years, grey headed, of venerable aspect, and lofty and 
commanding presence. 

Bishop Hatfield died, after a lingering illness, at his manor of 
Alford, near London, on the eighth of May, 1381. His body 
was brought to Durham, and interred in a tomb, which he had 
himself erected for his own sepulture, and which is depicted in 
the accompanying plate. Although he had been munificent in 
his public and private donations duringhis life, and supported an 
almost princely establishment, he died possessed of very consi- 
derable wealth, which he bestowed in various acts of charity, 
and to persons of all ranks and denominations. To the church 
of Durham, besides several robes of silk and cloth of gold, 300 
marcs in money, the stock of his park in Weardale, many pre- 
cious ornaments and divers vessels of silver, he bequeathed, as 
his most important treasure, a single thorn from the crown of 
our Saviour, which De Chambre records to have been originally 
presented to him by King Edward ; and the high value attached 
to this miserable imposture is no bad illustration of the credulity 
and superstition of the age. Nor does a transaction that took 
place at the funeral, afford us a bad lesson on the folly of all 
earthly pomp, and the insufficiency of worldly wealth, or of 
power however extensive, to procure regard beyond the grave. 

4 



BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

Bishop Hatfield, to whom the see and all its adherents were so 
much indebted, and to whom, when living, every one looked up 
with admiration and respect, was not admitted within the walls 
of the cathedral, when dead, without difficulty and contention. 
In consequence of a dispute between the Bishop's executors and 
the prior and monks, who claimed the chariot, horses, and other 
apparatus of the funeral, for the sacrist, the body was, for some 
time, not permitted to enter the walls, till, by the advice of 
Lord Neville, the contending parties submitted to a reference, 
and the executors redeemed the articles in dispute at a price of 
two hundred marcs. 

The monument of Bishop Hatfield stands on the south side of 
the choir, under one of the arches dividing it from the side aisle, 
and forms the base of the Bishop's throne, said to have been 
erected by the same prelate. From the dissimilarity in the 
style of the two, we should however be led to infer that they 
are of different, although not distant, periods : the monument 
belonging undoubtedly to the age of Edward III. whilst 
the throne assimilates more with that of Henry IV. The 
tomb and its canopies are wrought in stone, and the effigy, 
which is habited in pontificals and richly ornamented, is sculp- 
tured in alabaster, and is the only one which escaped the wan- 
ton injury, with which the Scotch prisoners, confined by 
Cromwell in this Cathedral after the battle of Dunbar, indulged 
their vindictive and fanatical feelings. The shields with which 
the monument is so liberally decorated, have been charged with 
armorial bearings and those emblazoned ; but a thick coat of 
yellow wash, with which it has for many years been disfigured, 
has nearly obliterated the colours, and choaked up some of the 
beautifully sculptured ornaments. The arms of Hatfield, a 
chevron between three lions rampant, are faintly discernible 
on some of the shields, but it is greatly to be hoped that an 
improved taste may lead to an early, and careful removal of this 
barbarous covering. 

5 



THOMAS HATFIELD, BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

The tomb is perfect on both sides ; that towards the choir 
has an ascent to the throne, the front of which is finished with 
a series of canopies, in continuation of those on the side of the 
tomb. 




in Windliestej Cathe'ifcal. 






TuhlbhrA. 3r:pt^23,Ji^:f> h^^rdiw^, Triphook kZtpard Timhcry Squwr_, ZondiriL. 



WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM, 

BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. 

BOKN 1324, — ^ DIED 1404. 
MONUMENT AT WINCHESTER. 

It has pleased God to send into the world, at considerable 
intervals of time indeed, but in almost every age and country, 
and during the less enlightened periods of human society most 
conspicuously, some beings who appear almost from their birth 
to have been gifted with embodied spirits of a more exalted na- 
ture than those which inhabit the forms of ordinary mortals . The 
iiames of Solon, of Socrates, of Homer, of Aristotle, of Numa, 
of Cicero, — and may we not add of our own Alfred, of Bacon, 
and of Shakspeare — sufficiently exemplify the posit;ion, illus- 
trative instances of which may be discovered in the annals of 
all nations. Few examples, however, can be found of men 
who, at a very early period of life, have been sought for in 
obscurity, and suddenly transported to a splendid court, and 
entrusted, instantly, with offices of high confidence and emolu- 
ment; few, indeed, could have borne such sudden elevation 
without incurring the charge of personal vanity, or encounter- 
ing the reproach of cupidity, of low ambition, or of grasping 
avarice. It is the glory of Wykeham that he thus rose and 
thus maintained himself in the highest offices of the state, amid 
the usual cabals of jealous, envious, and malignant courtiers, 
through the greater part of the reign of the most magnificent 
mpnj^rch pf thp fourteenth century. It is equally creditable 

1 



WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM, 

to him, that he was trusted and honored even by the adverse 
factions which distracted the state under the weak and 
wretched successor of his great patron. 

William of Wykeham was born at Wykeham, a village, 
between Winchester and Portsmouth, in Hampshire, in the 
year 1324. Family names in that age were arbitrary and 
uncertain, and it is not clearly known whether his father's name 
was Wykeham, Long, or Perot. He himself, in the statutes of 
both his colleges, mentions his father and* mother by their 
Christian names of John and Sibylla, and it seems probable 
that they were persons of reputable condition, but in mean cir- 
cumstances. The Lord of the Manor of Wykeham, Nicholas 
Uvedale, has immortalized his own name by his early patronage 
of William, the future Bishop of Winchester, and Chancellor of 
England. His beneficence is recorded by a tablet placed con- 
spicuously in the front of the chapel at Winchester, inscribed 

tJvEDALLUS WyKEHAMI PaTRONUS. 

The biography of Wykeham has been so amply elucidated 
by the correct and elegant pen of Bishop Lowth, himself one 
of the brightest ornaments of Wykeham's colleges, and the life 
compiled by that prelate from authentic documents, has been 
so frequently published in repeated editions,, abstracts, and 
abridgements, that it may suffice, if we furnish our readers 
with a chronology of th^ principal events of his advancement in 
the church and state, and of the establishment of his noble 
institutions ; and we are the rather induced to do this, because 
it is not only consonant with our design, but has never, unless 
we are much mistaken, been before attempted. 

1324. Wykeham (styled by himself, in his own will, Wil- 
helmus Wykeham) was born. 

1334, or thereabouts : he was sent by Nicholas Uvedale, 
ffit. 10. Constable of Winchester Castle, and Lord of the 

2 



BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. 

Manor of Wykeham, to the grammar-school of Win- 
chester. 

1340, He was taken into his patron's family as secretary, 
set. 16. Between this time and 

1347, he was recommended to William of Ed^don, Bishop 
set. 23. of Winchester, who finding him to possess eminent 
talent, coupled with miich useful knowledge, brought 
him to the court of King Edward the Third. 

1352 

' In a patent dated 1352, he is styled " Clericus." 

1356, By a patent dated the tenth of May 1356, he was 
tet. 32. appointed clerk of all the King's works in his manors 
of Henle and Yeshampsted, On the thirtieth of Oc- 
tober, in the same year, he was made surveyor of the 
King's works in his manor and park of Windsor. At 
this time he pulled down and rebuilt, with superior 
magnificence, the Castles of Windsor and Queenbo- 
rough. 

1360, In this year, he attended the King to Calais, acting 
set. 36. as a notary and attesting the treaty of Bretigny, there 

confirmed by the oaths of the Kings of England and 
-France, each in person. 

1361, He held, by presentation from the King, the pre- 
set. 37. bend of Flixton, in the church of Lichfield, and the 

rectory of Pulham, in Norfolk. 

1362, He was ordained Priest by Edyndon, Bishop of 
set. 38. Winchester. 

1363, He was Warder and Justiciary of the King's forests 
^t. 39. on this side Trent : and, in the same year, had a 

3 



WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM, 

prebend in the church of St. Stephen, Westminster,, 
the arcdeaconries of Northampton and of Lincoln, 
and the prepositure of Wells conferred upon him. 

' He was made Keeper of the Privy Seal, 
set. 40. ^ •' 

1365> He was commissioned by the King to treat of the 
aet. 41. ransom of the King of Scotland, together with the 
Chancellor, Treasurer, and the Earl of Arundel. He 
is soon after called Chief of the Privy Council, and 
Governor of the Great Council, (Rymer, Feeder a, vol. 
vii. p. 164.) "At this time," says Froissart, his con- 
temporary, " reigned a priest called William of Wyke- 
ham, so much in favour with the King of England, 
that every thing was done by him, and nothing was 
done without him." 

1367, On the tenth of October, in this year, he was con- 
aet. 43. secrated Bishop of Winchester, by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, assisted by the Bishops of London and 
' Salisbury ; and being now qualified, by his advance- 

ment in the church, to receiye the highest dignity in 
the state, he was constituted Chancellor of England. 

1370, ' He opened the Parliament, summoned to provide 
set. 46. for war with France, by an energetic harangue. 

1371, Yielding to the jealousy of ecclesiastical power, 
set. 47. expressed by the lay Lords and Commons, he re- 
signed the Great Seal. 

1375, The Duke of ^Lancaster, although generally hostile 

set. 51. to the Clergy, and leader of the party which induced 

Wykeham to resign the Seals, when about to depart 

for the wars in France, appointed the bishop (together 

with the Earl of Arundel) his trustee, and agent for 

4 



BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. 

iall his castles, manors, and estates^ and to be his ad- 
ministrator in case of dfeath. Pope Gregory the 
Eleventh at this , time wrote to the bishop, conjuring 
him to use his influence with the King to bring about 
a reconciliation between the belligerents. 

1376, A great Council of twelve prelates and peers was 
set. 52. appointed, Wykeham being one, to take the manage- 
ment of affairs out of the hands of the Duke of Lan- 
caster's party ; the parliament constituting this ap- 
pointment obtained universally the name of the Good 
Parliament. At this time died Edward the Black 
Prince, one of the greatest heroes, and the most truly 
deserving that name, that ever this or any other 
nation produced. He appointed William of Wyke- 
ham one of his executors. 

1377, During the latter part of the last year, and the 
aet. 53. beginning of this, the revengeful machinations of the 

Duke of Lancaster's party caused Wykeham's tem- 
porary removal from Court, but a trial, on charges 
which incensed the nation, concluded with the 
bishop's restoration to royal favour. On the twenty- 
first of June died King Edward the Third, and 
Wykeham was summoned to attend at the coronation 
of Richard the Second, and was reinstated in all his 
dignities. Between this time and 

1383, Wykeham was much engaged in state affairs. The 
set. 59. Commons named him, with other Lords, with whom 
they wished to confer relative to the Duke of Lan- 
caster's projects for an useless war with Spain. 
These were principally restrained by the Bishop's 
influence and wisdom. 

5 



WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM, 

1384, He was again chosen to confer with the Commons 
aet. 60. upon the proposal of a treaty of peace with France. 

1385, The Bishops of Winchester and Exeter, with two 
set. 61. Bannerets, were appointed to survey and rectify all 

diflaculties in the Royal Exchequer. 

1386, On the fourteenth of April of this year, the Society 
eet. 62. of Warden and seventy Fellows, which had been 

formed by Wykeham as early as 1373, at the same 
time with that of his College and School at Win- 
chester, made their public entrance into his noble 
foundation, then, and ever since, entitled Saint Mary's 
College of Wynchester in Oxenforde, otherwise New 
College. 

During all his private difficulties, and public labours, 
he had found time to digest and compose a body of 
statutes, which have served as a model for most sub- 
sequent foundations of the kind; On the year after 
he had finished his building at Oxford, he began that 
at Winchester, and received the oaths of the members 
of that society to the observance of his statutes, 
' September 9, A. D. 1400. 

1393, He held a visitation of the monastery of his Ca- 
set. 69. thedral Church of Winchester, and finding the fabric 
greatly dilapidated, undertook, in the year following, 
almost the total re-edification of the nave and its 
aisles. This great work, together with the beautiful 
oratory and tomb destined for his own interment, 
occupied ten years, and was but lately finished when 
the bishop died. 

1399, He was present at the last Parliament of Richard 
3et. 75. the Second; and, on the deposition of that unhappy 

6 



BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. 

prince, retired from state affairs, devoting himself 
wholly to works of fervent piety, and most extensive 
charity. 

1404, On the 27th day of September, about eight o'clock 
cet. 80. in the morning, died this great and generous man : 
the wisest churchman of a superstitious age, the 
purest statesman that ever adorned the highest office^ 
of dignity and trust ; as well as the most extraordinary 
instance, perhaps, upon record, of a liberal mind and 
munificent generosity, in one, who, from a state Of 
comparative poverty and insignificance, rose, with 
a rapidity almost unexampled, to the highest rank, 
and the most princely fortunes, but whom neither 
wealth nor exaltation could corrupt. 
We shall conclude this article with an extract from a manu- 
script Chronicle of the Bishops of Winchester, written by a 
Monk of that place, and a contemporary with Wykeham. It is 
the more curious, as we do not believe it to have been before 
made public. 

" Eodem anno (1366) electus est Willielmus Wykham, vir 
mirse probitatis et industrise, qui navem istius ecclesiae prout 
modo cernitur, opere magnifico atque sumptuoso fecerat reno- 
vari. Vestimenta preciosa cum aliis jocalibus in suo decessu 
huic ecclesiae munificentissime largiendo, omnjBS et singulos suae 
ecclesiae monachos, ut pro anima sua specialius exorarent, con- 
dignis muneribus honoravit. Hie etiam venerabilis pater duo 
collegia, unum in Oxonia, et aliud in Wyntonia, ad honorem 
Dei et Cleri augmentationem fundavit ac cum omnibus neces- 
sahis sufficienter dotavit. Quantas autem expensas circa reges 
et proceres continuo effundebat, quot vias lutosas et immeabiles, 
quot pontes fractoS et debiles, quot ecclesias ruinosas et exiles 
suis sumptibiis emendebat,non stilo poterit br6viter compre- 
hendi. Obiit autem anno Domini 1404, ad festum Michaelis." 

7 



WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM, 

The MS., from which the above quotation is extracted, is 
a long roll, written by a Winchester Monk, during the reign of 
Henry V. It closes in 1419. 

On the subject of Wykeham's liberality, and public spirit. 
Bishop Lowth makes the following just and very sensible 
remarks. His munificence, says his biographer, proceeded 
always from a constant generous principle, a true spirit of libe- 
rality. It was not owing to a casual impulse, or a sudden 
emotion, but was the effect of mature deliberation and prudent 
choice. His enjoyment of riches consisted in employing them 
in acts of beneficence ; and while they were increasing upon 
him, he was continually devising proper means of disposing of 
them for the good of the public : not delaying it till the time 
of his death, when he could keep them no longer ; nor leaving 
to the care pf others what he could better execute himself; but 
forming his good designs early, and, as soOn as he had the abi- 
lity, putting them in execution, that he might have the satis- 
faction pf seeing the beneficial effegts of them; and that, by 
constant observation, and due experience, he might, from time 
to time, improve and perfect them, so as to render them yet 
naore beneficial. 

The monument of the illustrious prelate, of whom we have 
now been treating, stands on the South side of the nave of 
Winchester Cathedral, under an arch dividing it from the side 
aisle, and within a chapel of open work, which altogether fills up 
the vacancy. As this chapel was erected purposely to receive 
the monument, and is, for that reason, to be deemed an integral 
part of the design, we have thought it proper to give a distinct 
plate of its exterior, as well as one of the Tomb which it en^ 
closes. This last is of alabaster : it is placed immediately in 
the centre of the chapel, and is finished on every side. The 
eflSgy pf the bishop, in his pontificals, with his crozier under the 
left arm, ig on the upper table : the hands are uncovered, and 



BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. 

joined on the breast, as in prayer, having rings on the third 
finger of the right, and on the third and fourth fingers of the 
left, hand. The head rests on a double cushion, supported at 
each corner by an angel. At the feet are three priests. With 
the exception of the face and hands, the whole of the figure is 
painted, evidently the work of a very recent period. Wyke- 
ham's countenance, if we may judge from the statue before us, 
was not remarkable for intelligence or beauty j the face is fat 
and devoid of expression, whilst the figure altogether is short 
and corpulent. Within the niches, on the sides of the tomb, 
(which, by the way, in all probability, originally contained 
figures,) are now emblazoned alternately the arms of the bishop, 
argent two fesses sable, between three roses gules, and the 
same impaling those of the see, surmounted by a mitre ; the 
centre shield being, in addition, encircled with the garter. 
Round the ledge of the upper table, on which tiie efi%y is 
placed, is the following inscription cut in brass, inlaid in dark 
shell marble :-^ 

WU^tlmM% tttos ISSsiNbm fstet j^it nece J^m ; 

l%tim mlesioe ptaesttl, rtptabit ^tn^tu> 

Hargns sxai bapifer, probat jioc cum btbfu pauper : 

^onsflits psriur regttt fuerat lem bexter. 

I^unt irotet t%%t ptum funiratto 6l^oIUstorum : 

®xontae pttmutn stat, ^fntoniaepe sentntium. 

3>tt8tter orttts, tutrntlum qtn'ctrnqwe Wiretfe, 

^ro tanrfs^mwftfe m »tt »M &fta pwnrnfs. 

The chapel is of stone, finished on the sides with open 
tracery, and covered with an arched roof of rich fan-work. On 
each side is a small door of entrance from ' the body of the 
church ; and at the east end, which is raised one step, is the 
base of an altar, bearing evident tokens of having been once 
elaborately ornamented. Above the altar, the end of the chapel 
is finished with two tiers, each containing five niches, three 
large and two smaller, with pedestals for figures. The west end 
has one tier of corresponding niches, and is finished underneath 
with tracery, in the spandrirls of which are shields containing 

9 



WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM. 

the armorial bearings of the bishop. On the south side, and 
adjoining the altar, is a neat Piscina. The floor appears to have 
been originally paved with ornamental tiles, of which a few 
,only now remain. 

Particular attention appears, at all times, to have been paid 
to the preservation of this monument by the two foundations, 
so amply endowed by this generous prelate* Their pious 
regai:d to the spot containing the remains of their munificent 
benefactor, ■ is well worthy those who taste so largely of his 
bounty; and it should not be passed over without acknow- 
ledgment, since, however laudable, the example is somewhat 
unusual. We may, however, be permitted to regret, that the 
judgment with which the repairs have been executed has not 
always been commensurate with the liberal feelings that have 
promoted them. The destruction of the small figures, which 
enriched the sides of the tomb; may probably be ascribed to a 
very distant period; but the paring down of the crockets 
which run up the canopies, and the destruction of the inter- 
mediate pinnacles, which had probably only sustained partial 
injury, appear to have been recently accomplished ; and al- 
though uniformity was probably intended, and has certainly 
been attained, the beauty of the monument has, in our opinion, 
been altogether sacrificed for its accomplishment. Some minor 
errors have been committed, in the application of the fragments 
of pinnacles to shafts, with which they have no connexion, as 
well as by adapting finials to the tpps of canopies to which 
they could never have belonged. 

If we were not cautious of drawing down upon ourselves and 
our book the censures of our Wiccamical friends, we should, 
perhaps, hazard an opinion, that the eifigy of their founder is 
not altogether genuine. Certain it is, that it will bear no com- 
parison, either in design or execution, with almost any, similai: 
specimen of the age to which it professes. to belong; nor has 
the artist, whoever he may be, any reason to regret tjxat hi§ 
name has not descended to posterity. 

10 



# *-' "0 




SRC 

mi) 









i. ^ 






f=3 S 



© 

1^ 



<3 




I'rawii "by 'Ed.vr?- Blcre. 



Engiavea. "by H.I* Keni. 



im St SacvioTiurs Qmrdhi-, Soiithwarlc. 






I'uhlished SKut'^'-'S. 1825. by Sa^rdirii^. TnpJiook & Zepard.J^inshury l''qiLar&. London. 



JOHN GOWER. 

DIED 1408. 
MONUMENT AT ST. SAVIOUR'S, SOUTHWARK. 

The early accounts of John Gower, the contemporary' and 
friend of Chaucer, and himself a poet of great merit and no 
mean celebrity, are of a most contradictory nature. Leland 
had received information, that he was descended from the 
Gowers of Stitenham, in Yorkshire : — " vir equestris ordinis, ex 
Stitenhamo villa Eboracensis provincise, ut ego accepi, origi- 
nem ducens;" Weever expressly says, that he was descended 
from a family, a branch of which resided at Braborne, in Kent ; 
and Caxton, in the first edition of the " Confessio Amantis," is 
equally positive that he was a Welshman, " borne in Walys, in 
the tyme of Kyng Richard the Second." Caxton's* assertion 
would have considerable weight, if it did not so happen that, in 
the second and third editions of Gower's poem, this informa- 
tion relative to his native country does not appear, whence we 
may safely conclude, that Berthelet had discovered it to be erro- 
neous, and omitted it accordingly. Many writers might be 



* Although, in compliance with those who have preceded us, we give Caxton 
the credit of informing us, that Gower was a native of Wales, it is bare justice 
towards that excellent and patriotic printer to state, that he only repeated the story 
from some MS. copy of our author's works, which he procured for his edition. 
We have, at this moment, a manuscript on vellum of this description, before u&, 
with the following rubric, here exactly transcribed : 

1 



JOHN GOWER. 

quoted, who favour one or other of these opinions, but as they 
all derive their information from the authorities already named, 
it seems unnecessary tjo refer to them. For our own parts, we 
are content to believe that he was a branch of the Yorkshire 
family; and, notwithstanding the assertion of Thynne, who 
was an industrious and accurate antiquary and herald, should 
venture to suppose, that the difference in the armorial bear- 
ings arose from some change that took place at a remote 
period, and, probably, from the cause explained by Brooke, in 
the note.* 



©fife htiCfk fe tntttuUa coftssfo amatfe tfiat fe to gage i mglgssfie tfie 
confessBon off tfie lo«w vtimli mis tompgleif fig g(oj&n CEfotow spger, bom 
in asaalgs in tfie tgme off tfi^ feing rttfiarU tSe moria- Wt^ boolt tretetg 
Soft) fij &3a8 cofessga to ffiengus prtsle off Fraus bpon tfit tausjs off loue 
in 6fe fgue togttJS antr sju«n irgtiflg sgnnts as tfigs sagtt boofe at alonge 
appB^^tfi antf iig cauge tfier been tomprgsett tSerin trguers fifetorgfs anU 
faWes tofctfigns rang matere I fiagff orftegnetf a table Jew folofcgng off 
all sutj&e ggstorgcs anir fables fofier anir in fiofiat boofe anK leel tfieg stantr 
in as 6ere afftgr folotoetfi. 

Mr.Dibdin, in his " Typographical Antiquities," vol. I. pp. 177, 178, calls this 
" Caxton's proherae," supposing it to have been first added to the printed work : 
the fact, however, was, that the printer took the title and table just as he found 
them in MS., and it was to some unknown person that we are indebted for the 
information that Gower was a Welshman, and, which is of far greater value', the 
elaborate list of contents prefixed to the early editions of the " Confessio Amantis." 

* Thynne, in his very curious animadversions on Speght's edition of Chaucer, 
printed'hy that zealous literary antiquary, Mr. Todd, says, that Bale mistakes, in 
transcribing from Leland," that Gower was a Yorkshireman, "for in truth your 
armes of this S' John Gower beinge argent on a cheuerone azure, three leopardes 
heddes or, do prove that he came of a contrarye howse to the Gowers of Stytenhara 
in Yorkeshyre, who bare barrulye of argent and gules, a crbsse patye florye sable. 

2 



JOHN GOWER. 

From whatever race Gower derived his descent, it is clear 
that he received a liberal education, which, he finished by 
entering at one of the Inns of Court, in order to prosecute the 
study of the municipal law. He became a member of the 
Inner Temple, where it has been generally supposed, that he 
formed his acquaintance with Chaucer ; and their studies and 
pursuits being the same, as well as their political opinions, (for 
the one attached himself to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 
while Gower adhered to the Duke of Gloucester, both uncles 



Whiche diflference of armes semeth a difference of famelyes, vnlesseyou canne prove 
that, beinge of one howse, they altered their armes vppon some iuste occasione, as 
that some of the howse maryinge one heyre did leave his owne armes and bare the 
armes of his mother; as was accustooraed in tymes paste. But this difference of coates 
for this cause, or anye other, (that I colde yet euer lerne) shall you not fynde in this 
famelye of Gower." This exchange of arms is a curious, and, sometimes, a very per- 
plexing subject. We have seen a volume containing a great number of coats beau- 
tifully tricked by Ralph Brooke, York Herald, in 1594, and which, as he himself says, 
were " collected and made onlye to shewe the alteracon and differences of armes in 
formeretyme borne and vsed of y° nobillitie of this realrae." Brooke explains this 
by saying, " it was vsuall, that if a baron or peare of this realme had maryed with 
an enheritrix of a greater house then his owne, he or his sonne would leaue their 
owne armes and beare their wyffe or mothers as his chiefe coate; lykewise a 
yonger brother hauinge maryed with an enheritrix by whom he was aduansed to 
greater dignitie then his elder brother, dyd vse his wyfes coate rather then to 
beare his owne with dyfference. By which examples it is mariyfest that the erroure 
of these bearinge of signes, did not growe of ignorance of the officers of armes, 
by whom it was to be reformed, but onlye by choyse and selfewill of the nobyl- 
litie themselfes in pleasinge their fantacies, and obscuringe the trwe signe of their 
progenitours ; this abuse and ignorance beinge ioyned with an other as common 
and as ill as the formere ; which was, if a man had had three sonns, the one 
dwellinge at the Towns-end, the other at y* Wopde, and the thyrde at the Parke, 
they all tooke theyr surnames of theire dwellinge, and left their aunciente sur- 
names ; which errour hath overthrowen and brought into oblyvion manye aun- 
ciente houses in this realme of England, that they are nether knowen by theire 
name or armes." 



JOHN GOWER. 

of King Richard,) nothing could be more natural than that an 
intimacy should ensue, which, we may easily imagine, would 
quickly ripen into a warm and mutual friendship. Of their 
esteem for each other, we have positive an-d public evidence ; 
for Chaucer, in the conclusion of his "Troilus and Creseide," 
recommends his poem to the care and revision of Gower and 
another critical friend, eminent for his scholastic knowledge, 
and tutor to the poet's son. 

" O moral Gower, this boke I direct 
To the, and to the philosophical! Strode, 
To vouchsafe, there nede is, to correct. 
Of your benignitees and zeles good :'' 

Whilst Gower, at the conclusion of his "Confessio Amantis," 
introduces Venus as regarding Chaucer with peculiar favour 
and commendation : 

" And grete well Chaucer, whan ye mete, 
As my discyple and my poete : 
For in the floures of his youth 
In sondry wyse, as he well couth, 
Of ditees and of songes glade. 
The which he for my. sake made, 
The londe fulfylled is ouer all ; 
Wherof to hym in specyall 
Aboue all other I am mostholde. 
For thy nowe in his dayes olde 
Thou shalt hym tell thys message. 
That he, vpon his latter age. 
To sette an ende of all his werke, 
As he whiche is myn owne clerke. 
Do make his testament of loue. 
As thou hast done thy shryfte aboue." 

It is lamentable to suppose that there should have been any 

4 



JOHN GOWER. 

interruption to a friendship between two persons who seem to 
have entertained so much mutual esteem, but this appears to 
have been the case. The learned and ingenious Mr. Tyrwhitt 
suspects, that the reflection in the man of lawe's prologue, on 
those who relate such stories as that of Canace or of ApoUo- 
nius Tyrius, was levelled at Gower, who introduces both tales 
in his "Gonfessio Amantis :" 

" But certainly no word ne writethhe 
Of thilke wicke ensample of Canace 
That loved hire owen bother sinfully 
(Of all s wicke cursed stories I say fy) 
Or elles of Tyrius Appolonius," &c. : 

and it is pretty clear that, in the same tale, Chaucer insinuates 
that his /ftrmer friend had not been sufficiently accurate in 
recording a circumstance he was then relating : 

" Som men wold sayn, how that the child Maurice . 
Doth this message until this emperout." 

Certain it is, that Gower, in telling the same story, represents 
Maurice as entrusted by his father with the invitation*, 
whereas Chaucer says, 

" But as I gesse, Alia was not so nice 
To him that is so soveraine of honour, 
As he that is of cristen folk the flour, 
Send any child, but it is bet to deme 
He went himself, and so it may wel.seme." 



'« The kjrnge AUee forth, with thassent 
Of Custe his wife, thyder sent . 
Mprice his sonne, as he was taught. 
To themperour, and he goth straught." 
5 



JOHN GOWER. , 

What strengthens, if it does not confirm, the suspicion that 
Gower resented these allusions, and that the two poets were no 
longer on good terms, is, that the very lines we have already- 
quoted from the " Confessio Amantis," in praise of Chaucer, 
were subsequently omitted, and are found in none of the more 
niodern manuscripts of that poem, that is, of such as contain 
the alterations made after the accession of Henry the Fourth. 

The particulars of Gower's life to be gleaned at this distance 
of time, are very scanty. That he was considered a poet of 
great celebrity and worthy of royal patronage, is proved from 
the introduction to the early editions in MS. of the "Confessio ;" 
for Richard the Second was not only personally acquainted 
with him, but condescends to invite him into his presence, and 
there commands him to write some new poem for his amuse- 
ment; Gower's own account of the interview is curious: 

— it be fel vpon a tyde, 
As thing which shulde tho be tyde, 
Vnder the town of newe Troye, 
Whych tok of Bruyt his fyrst joye. 
In Temse, whan it was flowende. 
As I in a bote cam rowende ; 
So as fortune here tyme sette, 
My liege lorde parchaunce I mete. 
And so bifell, whan I cam nygh, 
Out of my bote whan he me seygh. 
He bad me come vnto his barge ; 
And whanne I was with him at large, 
Amonges othere thinges seide. 
He' hath this charge vpon me leyde, 
And bad me do my besinesse. 
That to his heih worthinesse 
Som newe thing I shulde boke. 
That he himselff it myght loka, 

At the close of his life, he lost his sight : in a manuscript of 

6 



JOHN GOWER. 

his "Vox Clamantis," in All Souls' library, Oxford, written for 
Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, and dedicated by 
Gower to that, prelate, he styles himself " senex et coecus." 
The manuscript was probably wn'Wera about 1400;* the poem 
was composed in 1397 . 

That he was possessed of considerable property has always 
been alleged, from the circumstance of his contributing largely 
towards the new building of the Church of St. Mary Overey, 
Sputhwark, and founding a chantry in St. John's Chapel, where 
he lies buried ; it remained, however, for the research of the 
late Mr. Gough to discover the will of Gower, which we shall 
transcribe as a very curious antiquarian document, and one not 
only illustrative of the character and circumstances of . him 
whom we are now considering, but of the times in which he 
flourished. 

In Dei nomine Amen. Ego Johannes Gower compos mentis, 
et in fide Catholica ad misericordiam divinam doraini nostri 
Jesu Christi ex toto me commendans, condo testamentum 
meum sub hac forma. In primis lego aniraam meam Deo 
creatori meo, et corpus ad sepeliendum in ecclesia Canonicofum 
beate Marie de Overes in loco ad hoc specialiterdeputato. Et 
lego Priori dicte ecclesie qui pro tempore fuerit quadraginta 
solidos. Item lego subpriori viginti solidos. Item lego cuilibet 
Canonico sacerdoti Deo ibidem servienti xiij' et iiij" ceteris vero 
Canonicis ibidem' noviciis lego cuilibet eorum sex solidos et 
viij''. ut omnes et singuli exequias sepulture mee devocius colant. 



* See Todd's " Illustrations of Gower, p. 100, .where he gives two lines, 
which he says are found in some MSS. of the Confessio Amantis, and which fix 
the date of this calamity. 

" Henrici quarti primus regni fuit annus 
Quo michi deficit visus ad acta mea." 
7 



JOHN GOWER. 

orantes pro me. Item lego cuilibet valetto infra portas dicti 
Prioratus Priori et Conventui servienti duos solidos, et cuilibet 
garcioni xij". Item lego ecclesie beate Marie Magdalene xl 
solidos ad luminaria et ornamenta dicte ecclesie. Item lego 
sacerdoti ibidem paroch. x solidoSj ut oret et orari faciat pro 
me. Item lego magistro clerico ibidem iiij". Item lego sub- 
clerico ij'. Item lego iiij ecclesiis paroch. in Soutwerk, ; viz, 
sancte Margarete, sancti Georgii, sancti Olaui, et sancte Marie 
Magdalene iuxta Bermundesey, cuilibet earum feingillatim xiij°. 
et iiij*. ad ornamenta et luminaria ut supra. Et cuilibet sacer- 
doti paroch. sive rectori in cura ibidem pro tempore residenti 
et ecclesie servienti sex' et octo* ut orent et orari pro me in suis 
parochiis faciant et procurent. Item lego magistro Hospitalis 
sancti Thome martiris in Southewerk xP et cuilibet sacerdoti 
qui est de gremio dicti Hospitalis in eodem servients vj' ef viij* 
ut' orent ibidem pro nde. Item lego cuilibet sorori professe in 
dicto Hospitali iij' et iiijd et cuilibet earum ancille infirmos 
custodienti xx''. Item lego-cuilibet infirmo infra dictum Hos- 
pitale languenti xij?. Item lego singulis Hospitalibus sub- 
scriptis, viz. Sancti Thome Elsingspitell, Bedlem extra 
Byschopus-gat, seint Mary spitell juxta Westm. cuilibet sorori 
ubi sunt sorores in dictis Hospitalibus professe una cum ancillis 
et languentibus ibidem, ut percipiant singillatira modo ut 
supra. Item lego cuilibet domuum leprosorum in suburbiis 
London, decern' ad distribuendum inter eosdem, ut orent pro 
me. Item lego Priori de Elsingspitell xP et cuilibet Canonico 
sacerdoti ibidem professo sex' et viij^ ut orent pro me. Item 
lego ad servicium altaris in capella sancti Johannis Baptiste in 
qua corpus meura sepeliendum est, viz. duo vestimenta de 
panno serico cum toto eorum apparatu, quorum unum est de 
Blew Baudkyn mixtum de colore albo, et aliud vestimentum 
est de albo serico. Item lego ad servicium dicti altaris unum 
missale grande et novum eciam et unum calicem novum, unde 

8 



JOHN GOWER. 

volimtas mea est quod mea dicta vestimenta una cum missale 
et calice maneant imperpetuum tantummodo ad servicium dicti 
aliaris, et non alibi. Item lego Priori et Conventui quendam 
magnum librum sumptibus meis noviter compositum, qui Mar- 
tirologium dicitur, sic quod in eodem specialem memoriam 
seriptam secundum eorum promissa cotidie iiabere debeo. 
Item lego Agneti uxori mee C" legalis monete. Item lego 
eidem iii ciphos, unum cooperculum, duo salaria, et xij cocli- 
aria de argento. Item lego eidem omnes lectos meos et cistas 
una cum apparatu aule, panetre, coquine, et eorum vasig et 
omnibus utensiliis quibuscunque. Item lego eidem unum:ca- 
licem ut unum vestimentum pro altare quod est infra oratorium 
hospicii mei. Item volo"quod 'si dicta'-Agnes.uxor mea diucius 
me vivat, tunc ipsa libere et pacifice, immediate post mortem 
meam, percipiat omnes redditus michidebitoa'de firmis mane- 
riorum meorum tam de Soiithwell in comitatu Nott. quam de 
Multon in com. SufF. prout in quodam scripto inde confecto 
sub sigillo meo necnon sub sigillis aliorum plenius constari 
poterit. Huius autem Testamenti facio et constituo executores 
meos, viz. Agnetem- uxorem meam, dominum Arnaldum Savage 
militem, dominum llogerum Armigerum, dominum Willelmum 
Denne carionicum capelle domini regis, et Johannem Burton 
clericum. Dat. infra Prioratum beate Marie de Overes in 
Sutwerke in festo Assumpcionis beate Marie a° dni millesimo 
cccc""* octavo. 

This will was proved, and administration granted to his 
widow, at Lambeth, on the twenty-fourth day of October, 
1408 ; whence we may collect, that Gower died between that 
time and the 15th of August preceding; the commonly re- 
ceived tradition, from Leliand downwards, was, that he died 
in 1402 or 1403, and it has been supposed, by the very few 
modern writers who have done more than copy the error of 
those who went before, that Mr. Gough's discovery of -the will 
now given, was the first correction of this mistake. It so 

9 



JOHN GOWER. 

happens, however, that that honest but much calnmniated 
Chronicler, Sir Richard Baker, so early as 1643, (for in that 
year was the first edition of his -" Chronicle of the Kings of 
England" published,) expressly mentions the fact that Chaucer, 
died, in the fourth, and Gower in the ninth year of Henry the 
Fourth; So easily was the truth to be obtained, if our .poetical 
biographers and antiquaries had not despised the book that 
afforded it ; a book, by the way, that contains more informa- 
tion than is generally supposed, and which would, probably, 
have never been so lightly esteemed, but for the Spectator's 
introduction of it on the hall table of Sir Roger De Coverley. 

Lest we should be accused of having overlooktsd a curious 
document, we will briefly state that Mr. Todd, in hi§ interesting 
volume of " Illustrations of Gower and Chaucer," has given 
a deed by which Robert de Ranclif de Stitenham conveys a 
property at Stitenham to his son John, and Emma his daughter 
in law. To this deed a John Gower is one with sevpral other 
witnesses. Mr. Todd calls him a subscribing witness, forget- 
ting that no subscriptions to deeds occur at so early a period ; 
and, from some person having, perhaps two; hundred years 
after, endorsed this deed as attested by " S' John Gower the 
Poet," the amiable Editor, zealous that the noble house of 
Gower should not lose the honour of being descended from the 
poet, infers, that it may be received as presumptive evidence 
in favour of Gower's belonging to the Stitenham family. This 
is,, indeed, a very plausible conjecture ; but unless we allow the 
change of arms, already alluded to, to have taken place, (and 
this we still think not .at all improbable) it would require some 
much more conclusive authority, to obtain the admission of 
our poet's name into the Stitenham pedigree. 

As an English Poet, and as a writer on contemporary English 
affairs, Gower deserves a much longer notice than our subject 
or our limits will authorise. We must be content, therefore, 
with giving a brief catalogue of his works, referring to Warton 

10 



JOHN GOWER, 

and Ellis for an elaborate analysis of, as well as their critical 
opinions on, his productions. 

He wrote 

L " Speculum Meditantis," vfhich wdiB m Vrench. It, treated 
on the virtues and vices of the age, and profes'sed to shew the 
proper mode of returning into the right path, to those who had 
been misled. The only account of it we obtain, is from a 
manuscript account of his three principal; works, . affixed to 
some copies of the " Confessio Amantis." Mr.; Warton hastily 
supposed he had found two copies of this "Speculum" in the 
Bodleian^ but there can be little doubt of his having, mistaken 
for it a short poem in French verse, by the same author, con- 
sisting of- a. compilation of precepts and examples in favour of 
the chastity of the marriage bed. We believfe, moreover, that 
the "Speculum Meditantis" is not known to exist in any 
public or private library. ' :. ■ 

2. Vox Clamantis. This is a metrical chronicle, consisting of 
seven books of Latin elegiacs,, written with some degrieejof 
purity, and a tolerable attention to the prosody ; the time and 
subject are the Insurrection of the Commons during the reign 
of Richard the Second. There are two very good MSS. of 
this piece, one in the Cotton collection, Tib. A. 4, the other in 
All Souls' Library, Oxford : and considerable extracts from it 
will be found in Gough's '^History of Pleshy." 

In several of the manuscripts of the " Confessio Amantis,^' 
which we have consulted in order to make our notice of Gower 
as perfect as we were able, are descriptions, and Mr. Ellis sup- 
poses by Gower himself, of his three principal works. Our • 
readers will be pleased with a curious illustration of the poet's 
"ingratitude to his lawful sovereign, and sycophancy to the 
usurper of his throne," we use Ritson's hard words, without 
altogether coinciding in their propriety ; but, surely, the extract 
we are about to give will prove that Gow^er's disrespect for the 

11 



JOHN GOWER. 

memory of his former, patron, Richard the Second, is more 
than " obscurely discernible."* 

In the early manuscripts, which were written before the 
accession of Henry IV,, the account of the " Vox Clamantis" is 
as follows : " Secundus enim liber sermone Latino versibus 
hexametri et pentametri compositus, tractat super illo mirabili 
eventu qui in'Anglia tempore domini Regis Ricardi secundi 
anno regni-sui quarto contigit,;quando serviles Rustici impe- 
tuose contra hobiles et ingenuos regni insurrexerunt : Innoeerir 
tiam tamen dicti domini Regis, tunc minoris (Btatis causa, indc 
excusabilem pronuntians, culpas aliunde ex quibus et non.a^fpr- 
tuna.talia inter homines contingunt enormia, evidentius, de- 
clarat: Titulusque voluminis hujus cujus ordo septem continet 
paginas. Vox Clamantis nominatur." In the later copies, 
written after the deposition of Richard, we have this descrip- 
tion : " Secundus enim liber sermone Latino metrice cdmpo- 
situs tractat de variis infortuniis tempore Ricardi secundi: in 
Anglia contingentibus, unde non solum regni proceres et com- 
munes tormenta passi sunt, sed et ipse crudelissimus Rex, suis 
ex demeritis ab alto corruens, in foveam quam fecit, finaliter,pro- 
jectus est. Nomenque voluminis,". &c. We have not had any 
opportunity of comparing the two editions of the " Vox Cla- 
mantis" (for there, doubtless, were, two), but a collation of them 
would, probably, disclose some very extraordinary alterationsi 
and amply repay the trouble. If these proemes were, indeed, 
written by Gower, the distich inserted by some more modern 
hand (of about the age of Elizabeth), in one of the MSS. al- 
luded to, is peculiarly apposite ; 

Tempore felici^ multi nnmerantur amici. 
Cum fortuna pgrit, nullus amicus erit. 

• Chalmers' Life, prefixed to the English Poets, p. v. 
12 



JOHN GOWER. 

3. Confessio Amantis. This poem, which is familiar to every 
bibliographical antiquary, is, a long, and somewhat tiresome, 
dialogue between a lover .and .his, cohfdssor, who is represented 
as a priest of Venus,, and dignified with the name of Genius. 
In the course of this confession. Genius not only examines the 
lover, as to every species of morality and every kind of vice, 
but illustrates their several effects by divers apposite' stories 
culled from the Gesta Romanorum, the Chronicle of Cassi- 
odorus, and other similar storehouses, together with the: Me- 
tamorphoses of Ovid, and the Scriptures. Not content .with 
this, our confessor conducts his pupil through the whole range 
of 'the Hermetic science, and concludes with making him a 
pxoficient in the philosophy of Aristotle, which he takes 
from a spurious work, entitled the " Secretum Secretorum," 
in, high estimation at that period. Our Lover having now 
imbibed a perfect knowledge of every thing virtuous and sci- 
entific, takes his leave altogether in an abrupt and rather an 
unexpected, manner, for, upon entreaty made to Venus and 
Cupid for assistance and advice^ he is reminded that he has 
grown old, and had better relinquish his pursuit altogether, '. 

For loues lust, and lockes hore, 
In chambre accorden neuermore ! 

Venus therefore, very compassionately, restores him his heart, 
whilst Cupid removes the dart that had occasioned all the mis-; 
chief, and the poet, as the table informs us, concludes with 
demonstrating that " all delectation of loue, out of charite, is 
nothynge." 

This work was originally printed by Caxton, in 1483, from 
one of the manuscripts that had been altered to coincide with 
the accession of H^nry the Fourth. It was next printed, with 
greater care, and from a better MS., by Berthelet, in 1532, 
and again in 1544 and 1554: the last edition was in the body 

13 



JOHN GOWER. 

of English Poetry published in 1810 by the booksellers, but it 
is a mere reprint from Berthelet. We do not say ithat a new- 
edition of the whole work is wanted, since it would, probably, 
find few readers, but we cannot but think, that a selection of 
the best and most popular parts might be made with great ad- 
vantage; for there is much good sense,, and no small fund of 
entertaintnent, scattered amongst a large mass of dull and un- 
interesting detail. It is hoped, however, that if this is ever 
undertakeii, or if the London booksellers shouW be again called 
upon for a second edition of their Poets, that a collation of 
some of the best manuscripts may be made, for we are very 
positive that a ihuch better text might bie obtained, and, that 
a great deal that is now unintelligible, or at least obscure^ 
would be rendered plain and satisfactory. 

4. Balades and other Poems, in French, Latin and English. 
MS., in the library of the Marquess of Stafford. These are par- 
ticularly described by Todd,, in his " Illustrations of Gower 
and Ghaucer," who has printed fi^ye of the „balades.- Warton 
had inserted four of them in his' " History of English Poetry," 
but they were not transcribed with equal care. We believ6 
that the present Earl Gower has given the whole contents of 
the MS. in a very limited impression intended for the members 
of the Roxburghe Club, but having never seen this precious 
volunie, are unable to speiak positively. We conjecture, also, 
that the Trentham MS. contains all the minor pieces of the 
author, except 

5. Carmen super multipliei viciorum pestilentia unde tempore 
Ricardi secundi partes nostras specialius inficebantur. This, 
with several of his smaller Latin poems, will be found in the 
Fairfax MS. in the Bodleian, and in the library of Trinity 
College, Cambridge. 

The monument of John Gower is in the Chapel of St. John, 
in the north aile of the nave of St. Mary Query's, commonly 

14 



JOHN GOWER. 

called St. Saviour's, Church in Southwark. It is entirely, of 
stone, and consists of a canopy of three arches with bouquet 
pediments, parted by finials, and at the back of each pediment 
three niches, of which there are also seven in front of the altar 
tomb. 

Bertheletj in the introduction to his edition of the " Con- 
fessio Amantis," 1532, gives the following descriptiDn4 of the 
three barbarous representations of Charity, Mercy, and Pity, 
which are now nearly obliterated, but which were painted 
against the wall within the three upper arches. " Beside on 
the wall where he lieth, there be peinted three virgins, with 
crownes on their heades, one of the whiche is written Charitie, 
and she holdeth this diuise in hir honde. 

Ea toy qui est fitz de dieu le pere 
Sauve soit que gist souz cest piere. 

The second is written Mercie, which holdeth in hir hande 
this diuise : 

O bon Jesu fait ta mercie 

A lalme, dont le corpe gist icy. 

The thyrde of them is written Pitee, which holdeth in hir 
hande this diuise foUowynge: 

Pour ta Pite Jesu regarde 

Et met cest alme en sauve g^rde." 

On the top of the altar tomb is the effigy of the poet, his head 
reclining on three volumes, representing his three great works, 
and inscribed with their respective titles. The hair falls in a 
large curl on his shoulders, and is crowned with a chaplet of 
four roses, originally, as Leland tells us, intermixed with ivy, 
" in token (says Berthelet) that he, in his life daies, flourished 
fresshely in literature and science." > It is inscribed, dfi mtVtU 
A long robe, closely buttoned down the front, extends from the 

15 



JOHN GOWER. 

neck to the feet, which are entirely covered. A collar of SS., 
from which is suspended a small swan, chained, the badge of 
Henry the Fourth, hangs from his neck; his feet rest upon 
a lion, and above, within a pannel of the side of the canopy, 
a shield is suspended, charged with his arms, argent .on a 
chevron azure, three leopards heads, or; crest, on a cap of 
maintenance, a talbot seiant. Under the figure of Mercy are 
these lines ! 

Armigeri scutum nihil a modo fert tibi tutum ; 
Reddidit immolutum morti generate tributum ; 
Spiritus erutum se gaudeat esse solututn ' 
Est ubi virtutum regnum sine labe statutum. 

On the ledge of the tomb was an inscription, now entirely 
gone : 

Hie jacet J. Gower, arm. 
Angl. poeta celeberrimus ac 
Huic sacro edificio benefac. insignis 
Vixit temporibus. Ed, III. et R. II. 

Adjoining the monument there hung originally a table granting 
1500 days of pardon, " ab ecclesia rite concessos," for all those 
who devoutly prayed for his soul. 

Stowe tells us, that the monument was repaired in 1615, 
at the expense of the parish, the figures on the wall being then 
nearly washed out and obliterated, and the efiigy despoiled of 
its hands and nose. It was again " repaired and beautified" in 
1764, a circumstance which the gentlemen in authority at that 
period have not failed to commemorate, by the introduction of 
their own names on a slab, from which we have no room 
to transcribe them for the benefit of our readers. 

16 




/0f 






@ 



« J; 
fe Si 



S' 



IB 






HENRY THE FOURTH, 

KING OF ENGLAND. 

BORN 1366. DIED 1412. 

MONUMENT AT CANTERBURY. 

In the present article we have collected from several manuscripts 
and printed sources of no inconsiderable rarity, the most striking 
features and transactions of the reign of Henry the Fourth. 
These we have given in the exact words of our authors, retaining 
their orthography, and in some instances even their errors, which 
are so easily detected and corrected, as to render them of less im- 
portance than that the fidelity of our excerpta should not have 
been preserved. We have been induced to adopt this plan from 
a conviction, that we should be enabled to offer a much more 
curious and acceptable article, in these adversaria variorum, than 
would have been expected had we repeated the ten-times-told 
tales of Richard's murder, Percy's, treasons, and Owen Glen- 
dower's daring but ill-fated enterprise. The general history of 
the period is known to every reader of English history j the 
little illustrations of that history, such as we now offer, are only 
dragged into notice by such labourers in the mines of antiquity 
as we, who seek after and endeavour to preserve the monumental 
remains of the kingdom, may well be deemed. 

" King Richard the Second being dead without issue, the 
right of the crowne of England should haue descended to Edmond 
Mortymer, Earl of March, son and h. of Roger Mortymer, whose 
mother PhUippa was da. and h. of Lionell Duke of Clarence, 
third Sonne of King Edward III. which notwithstanding, Henry 

1 



HENRY THE FOURTH, 

sirnamed of Bullingbrooke, Duke of Hereford and son and heyre 
of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth sonne of King Ed- 
ward III. was elected king and began his reigne the twenty-ninth 
of September 1899. There was a long contention twixt the houses 
of Yorke and Lancaster for the crowne, both of royall blood, and 
both distinguished by the roses : istius vero factionis initium 
hujusmodi fuit : fertur Henricus rex III. duos ex se et Aleo- 
nora Raymondi comitis Proumciae filia liberos genuit, Edwardum 
Walliae principem, et Edmondum gibbosum Lancastrise comitem. 
Edwardus junior natu, uti putabatur, quia forma praestanti'et 
indole egregia acceptior esset popularibus, Edmundo fratri, 
maiori quidem natu, sed corpore deformi, regno praepositus, ad 
quintam usque sobolem per cxxvi annos legitimam stupis suc- 
cessionem sine controuersia continuavit, donee Henricus ejus 
nominis quartus Johanni Lancastrise, Edwardi tertii regis filio, 
genitus, Richardo IF. vi deturbato, regnum obtinuit, Lancastriae 
hereditatem quae sibi materno jure ab Edmondo contigit, legitima 
successione regni jam ante fraudatam Edwardi stemmate a quo 
Richardus originem duxerat jure optimo prsepositum iri dictitans. 
Cumque hac regiae stirpis simultate proceres in duas factiones 
partium studio distraherentur, factum tradunt, ut Lancastrii rosa 
purpurea et qui Edwardi partes sequuntur Candida rosa in bellis 
vterentur : with this pretence to the crowne the maior part in 
parliament carryed it for Henry Duke of Hereford called Henry 
the Fourth, '29th September 1399, after which he made many 
newe officers, viz. Thomas his second sonne hee made Lord 
High Steward of England, therle of Northumberland Constable 
of England, therle of Westmerland, Dauraby NeuiU, who had 
maryed his aurit Joane a Beaufort, hee made Marshall of Eng- 
land, and was crowned at Westminster the thirteenth of October 
after, the Dukes of Yorke, Surrey and Albermale, with the Earle 
of Glocester, bare the canopy over him, and which office now the 
Barons of the Cinque Ports doe execute. Sir Thomas Dymocke, 

2 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

ancestor of Sir Edward Dymocke of Lincolnshire, was champion, 
and rode three tymes about the hall in compleat armour, chal- 
lenging any that should gainsay the King's right, throwing downe 
his gauntlete to maintaine the same. Hee created Henry his 
eldest Sonne Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester 
and heyre apparent to the Crowne. He dyed the 20th of March 
1412 the forty-sixth of his age, when hee had reigned thirteen 
yeares sixe moneths lacking ten dayes, & was buried at Canter- 
bury. Hee maryed 1°. Mary second daughter of Humphry de 
Bohun Earl of Hereford, Essex and Northampton and Constable 
of England, who dyed 1394 and was buryed at Canterbury 17 
Rich. II. 2°. hee maryed Joane daughter of Charles King of 
Nauarre, and widowe of John Montfort Duke of Brettaine, who 
dyed at Hauering in Essex, in the Bower in Essex issles, 10th 
July 1437, and was buryed at Canterbury, 15 Hen. VI. shee a 
widow twenty-four yeares. 

" Henry the first Sonne of Henry the Fourth Prince of Wales, 
borne 1388. Thomas the second son of Hen. IV. was Knight 
of the Garter, created Earl of Albemarle, and Duke of Clarence 
1411, slaine at the battaUe of Baugy in Anion, 1421, by the 
Duke of Alanson, was buryed at Canterbury, in Christ Church, 
his body being valiantly recouered from the enemy by his base 
Sonne, John Duke of Clarence. John the third sonne of Hen. IV. 
made Duke of Bedford 2 of Henry V. and Regent of Eng- 
land the 5th of Hen. V. and head of the publicke wealth by par- 
liament, and Regent of France. Hee dyed at Paris the 14th of 
Sept. and was buryed at Roan, and had issue only a natural son 
called Richard. Humphry fourth son of Henry IV. Duke of 
Gloucester, 1446 murdered at Bury, Suffolk, Feb. 22. had onely 
a base daughter called Antigone wife to Henry Gray Earl of 
Tankerville. 

" Blanch Plantagenett eldest daughter of King Henry the 
Fourth was maryed at Colen to Lewys sumamed Barbatus, 

3 



HENRY THE FOURTH, 

County Palatine of Rhyne, sonne of Rupertus or Robert Count 
Palatine of Rhyne and Duke of Bauaria 1400 and Emperour, 
and dyed before her husband, leaueing issue by him Rupertus 
surnamed AngHcus, who dyed 1426 iust 20 yeares before his 
father Ludovicus. Philippa Plantagenett, second daughter of 
King Henry the Fourth, was maryed to Ericus King of Denmarke 
and Norway, (1406,) Swethland, and Duke of Pomerania (28 
June 1405) and dyed without issue 1430. 

" Rafe or Dauraby Neuill Earl of Westmerland and his brother 
Nevill Lord Farinzall 3° Hen. IV. were councellors to the said 
King, and Thomas Chaucer cheife butler 11° Hen. IV." * 

The next document relating to this reign that we have to offer 
is a transcript from a contemporary manuscript in the same col- 
lection, which professes to give the challenge of Henry Bolin- 
broke. for the crown of England, together with his address to the 
Parliament immediately upon his election. The same MS. con- 
tains a very circumstantial account of the deposition of King 
Richard, which will be noticed, with greater propriety, in another 
part of our present work. 

" Post resignationem publicam in parliamento surrexit Henricus 
Lancastr. et dixit ista verba : 

" In the name of the fadyr of the sonne and of the holy gost, 
y henry of lancastre schalange thys feme of yngolonde and the 
crowne, wyth alle the membres and alle the appertenance, as y 
that am descendyd by rygt lyne of the blod, commynge fro the 
god lord kyng Henry thrydde ; and throwth the rygt that god 
of hys grace hath send me, with help of myn kyn and of my 
frendes, to recouere hyt; the wyche reem was in poynt to be 
vn don for defauyt of gouernance, and vn doynge of the gode 
lawes." 



* MS. in the Bodleian library, Rawl. Ixxix. B. fol. 243. 
4 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

" Post electionem Henrici Lancastr. habuit ista verba populo : 
" Syres y thanke god and you spirituel and temporel, and alle 
the statys of thys lond, and do yow to wytene [call you to witness] 
that hyt ys nowgt my wylle, that eny mon thynke that by weye 
of conqliest y wolde dysherede eny man of his heritage, fran- 
chyse, or other rygtes that hym ohwte [ought] to haue ; no put 
hym owt of that that he hath, and hath had by the gode lawes 
and customs of the reeme, excepte those persones that hau ben 
a geyn the gode purpos and the comune profyt of the reeme*." 

The best account of the coronation of King Henry is probably 
that given by Froissart, which affords a curious picture of English 
magnificence. " The dai was taken for his coronation on S. 
Edwarde's daye, the monday the xiii day of October t, at whych 
time, the Saturday before his coronation, he departed fro West- 
minster, and rode to the tour of London with a great nombre, 
and that night all suche squiers as shuld be made knightes the 
next day watched, who were to the nombre of xlvi. Every squier 
had his own bayne by him self, and the next day the duke of 
Lancastre made them all knyghtes at the masse tyme. Than they 
had long cotes with strayt sleues furd with meniuer, like prelates, 
with white laces hanging on their shulders. And after diner the 
duke departed fro the tour to Westminster, and rode al the way 
bareheaded, and about his necke the lyuery of Fraunce. He was 
acompanied with the prince his son and syxe dukes, syxe erles, 
and xviii barons, and in all, knyghtes and squyers a nine hundred 
horse. Then the kinge had on a shorte cote of golde, after the 
maner of Almayn, and he was mouted on a white courser, and 



* MS. on vellum in the Bodleian. This, but evidently modernized, has been 
printed in the Rolls of Parliament. 

t It is singular that the day of Henry's coronation was the anniversary of that 
of his banishment by the very sovereign whose throne he was now to occupy. 

5 



HENRY THE FOURTH, 

the garter on his lefte leg. Thus the duke rode through london 
with a great nobre of lordes, euery lordes seruaunte in theyr 
maysters lyuery. Al the burgesses and lombardes * marchauntes 
in London, and euery craft with their lyuerey and deuyse. Thus 
he was conueyed to Westminster. He was in nombre a syxe 
thousand horse, and the streats hanged as he passed by, and the 
same day and the nexte there were in London running seuen 
condets with wine white and redde. That nyghte the duke was 
bained t, and the nexte mornynge he was confessed, and harde 
three masses as he was accustomed to do, and tha al the prelates 
and clergy came fro Westmynster churche to the palais to fetch 
the kynge with procession, 9,nd so he went to the church a pro- 
cession, and all the lordes with him in their robes of scarlet, furred 
with meniuer, barred of their shoulders according to their degrees, 
and ouer the kynge was borne a clothe of estate of blewe, with 
four belles of golde, and it was born by four burgesses of the 
portes, as Doner and other. And on euery side of him he had a 
sword bom, the one the sword of the churche, and the other the 
sworde of iustyce. The sworde of the church his sonne the 
prince dyd beare, and the sworde of iustyce therle of Northum- 
berlande did beare, for he was as than constable of Englande, for 



* The Lombards were the monied men from Italy who settled as bankers in 
London at a very early period, and from their wealth and mercantile consequence 
gave a name to that part of the city in which they dwelt. " Then haue ye (says 
Stow in his Survey of London, edit. 4to. Lond. 1618, p. 376) Lombard Street, so 
called from the Longobards, and other marchants, strangers of diuers nations, 
assembling there twise euery day." The street was so named before the time of 
Edward the second, and continued to be the resort and public mart for business till 
the day after St. Thomas, 1568, when the Burse, since called the Royal Exchange, 
was open for the transaction of mercantile affairs. 

t Baine, a bath, from the French hain, haigner to bathe. " And so Sir Launcelot 
maid faire Elaine for to gather herbs for him to make a baine." History of Prince 
Arthur, 1 634. 

6 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

the erle of Rutlande was deposed fro that offyce, and the erle of 
Westmerlande, who was marshall of England, bare the ceptour. 
Thus they entered into the church about nyne of the clocke, and 
in the ihyddes of the churche there was an hygh scaffplde all 
couered with red, and in the myddes thereof ther was a chayre 
royall, couered wyth clothe of gold. Than the king sate downe 
in the chair ; and so sate in estate royall, sauyng he had not on 
the crowne, but sate bare headed. Than at four corners of the 
skaffolde, the archbyshop of Cauntorbury shewed vnto the people 
how God had sent them a ma to be their king, and demaunded 
if they wer content that he shuld be consecrated and crowned as 
their kynge. And they all with one voyce sayd yea, and helde 
vp their handes, promysyng him faythe and obeysaunce. Than 
the kynge rose and wente downe the scaffolde to the hygh auter 
to be sacred, at whiche consecration there were two archbyshoppes 
and ten byshoppes, and before the aulter ther he was dispoyled 
out of all his vestures of estate, and ther he was anoynted in vi 
places, on the hed, on the brest, and on the two shulders behinde, 
and on the handes. Than a bonet was set on his head, and while 
he was anoyntyne the clergy sange the Latiny, and suche seruice 
as they singe at the halowing of the font. Than the king was 
apareUed lyke a prelate of the churche, with a cope of red sUke 
and a paire of spurres with a poynt withoute a rowel. Than the 
sworde of iustice was drawen out of the shethe, and haJowed, 
and than it was take to the king, who did put it again into the 
shethe, than the archbishop of Caunterbury did gird the sword 
aboute hym, than saint Edwardes crowen was brought forthe 
which is close aboue and blessed, and than the archbishop did 
sette it on the kynges heade. After masse the king departed out 
of the churche in the same estate and went to his palais, and 
there was a fountaine that ranne by dyuers braunches white wine 
and redde. Than the kyng entred into the hall and so into a 
priuy chamber, and after came out again to dinner. At the fyrst 

7 



HENRY THE FOURTH, 

table sate the kynge. At the second the fiue peres of the xealme, 
at the thyrde the valiaunt men of London, at the fourth the new 
made knightes : at the fyft the knightes and squiers of honour. 
And by the kyng stode the prince holdynge the sworde of the 
church, and on the other syde the constable with the sworde of 
iustyce, and a lytell aboue the marshall with the ceptour, and at 
the kings bord sate two archbishoppes and xvii byshoppes. And 
in the middes of the dinner, ther came in a knight, who was 
called Dinereth * aU armed vpon a good horse richely apparelled, 
and had a knyght before hym bearing his speare, and his sworde 
by his syde and his dagger. The knight toke the kyng a lybell, 
the whych was red. Therin was conteined, that if there were 
other knighte, squier, or any other gentleman that wold say that 
king Henry was not rightful king, he was there redy to fyght 
with him in that quarel, before the kynge, or whereas it shoulde 
please hym to appoynt ; that byU was cryed by an heraulde in 
syxe places of the hall, and in the town. There was none that 
wold chalenge hym. Whan the kynge had dyned, he toke vtyriQ 
and spyces in the hal, and than went into his chambre. Than 
euery man departed and went to their lodginges. Thus the day 
passed of kynge Henrie's coronation with greate ioy and feast, 
which endured all the next dayt." 

Froissart does not seem aware of the peculiar virtue of the oU 
with which Henry was anointed on this coronation, but which 
Walsingham very gravely relates to have been given by the 



Rectius Ih/mock. This is one of the many instances of Froissart's mistaking 
the English proper names : an error by no means to be wondered at in a foreigner; 
■ but not so excusable in the translator. Sir John Bouchier Knight, Lord Berners, 
himself an Englishman of rank, and who must hare had the means of executing 
this part of his task with greater fidelity: after all however we consider Lord 
Berners's to be the best translation of this very valuable historian, 
t Froissart's Chronycles of Englwde, t. 2, chap. 245, fol. 315. 

8 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

Virgin Mary to Thomas a Becket! It lay concealed tUI the 
reign of his immediate predecessor, who would fain have been 
re-anointed with it, for with it was found an inscription pre-; 
dieting that the sovereigns so anointed should be champions of 
the church j the archbishop however refused, and the precious 
oil was reserved for Henry. The populace of course considered 
that he was a sovereign chosen and appointed by the immediate 
interposition of Heaven. 

Neither the sacred oU, nor H.enry's politic forbearance towards 
his foes, nor his liberal rewards to those* who had assisted his 
views to the crown, were sufficient to protect the monarch in 
security. " Now when king Henry had thus mortised himselfe 
and his issue so sure and fast, as he thought, that the same was 
not possible to be remooued, then was he neerer an vtter ouer- 
throw and destruction then euer he was, for suche is the nature 
of dissimulation, that when fortune with her flattering seemeth 
most to ioy and laugh, then (so fickle is she of condition) is most 
perUl and daunger at hand: for now dyuers of those lords which 
were king Richardes friendes, outwardly dissimuled that which 
they inwardly conspired, which was the finall confusion and de- 
struction of King Henry, and to restore agayne their old Lords 
and mayster King Richarde. And the better to bring thys. 
matter about, they practised with the Abbot of Westminster that 
tiien was, who had no good opinion of King Henry, for that he 
heard him once saye, when he was Duke of Lancaster, that 
* Princes had to little, and the religious had to much,' and there- 
fore he supposed that he would not be a friend vnto the church, 
if he contynued long in that dignitie. Unto the house of thys 
abbot resorted one day as bidden gestes of the sayde abbot, John 
Holland Duke of Exceter and Erie of Hunfyngdpn, Thomas Hol- 
land Duke of Surrey and Erie of Kent, Edward Duke of Aumarle 
and Erie of Rutlande, sonne to the Duke of Yorke, John Mon- 
tagew Erie of Salsbury, Hugh Spencer Erie of Gloucester, John 

9 



HENRY THE FOURTH, 

the Bishop of Carleill, Sir Thomas Blunt, and one Magdalen, 
one of King Richard's chapell, a man as lyke vnto him in stature 
and proportion, as vnlike in birth, and dignitie. This abbot 
highly feasted these great Lordes, and when dyner was done, 
they withdrew themselves into a secret chamber, and when they 
were set, John Holland Duke of Exceter, who bare great grudge 
aga,ynst King Henry, declared to them their allegeaunce pro- 
mised, and by othe confirmed to King Richarde his brother, for- 
getting not the highe promocions and dignities which he and all 
they present had receeyued of the liberalitie of his sayde brother, 
by the which they were not onely bound to take part with him 
and his Friendes, but also to be reuenged for him and his cause 
on hys mortall enemies and deadly foes. In the doyng whereof 
he thought pollicy more meeter to be vsed then force. And the 
better to bring this matter about, he deuised a justes to be kept 
betwene him and xx on his part, and the erle of Salisbury and 
XX on his part at Oxforde. To the which justes king Henry 
should be desyred to be present, and when he were most ear- 
nestly beholdyng the pastyme, he should sodainely haue bene 
slayne and destroyed, and by this meanes king Richard, which 
was then alyue, should be restored to his libertie and to his crowne 
and kingdome. This deuise seemed to please \7ell all that were 
present, wherfore they made an indenture sextipartite sealed 
with their seales, and signed with their handes, in the which 
eche bounde himselfe to other to endeuour themselues for the 
destruction of king Henry, and the erection and restoring of 
king Richard, and sware on the Euangelistes the one to be true 
to the other, eueii to the houre and pojnit of death. Nowe all 
things beyngthus appoynted and concluded, the Duke of Exceter 
came to the king at Wynsore, humbly beseeching him for the 
loue that he bare to the noble actes of chiualrie, that he would 
vouchsafe not only to repaire to Oxford, to see and beholde their 
enterprises and attemptes, but also to be the discouerer and in- 

10 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

different judge, if any ambiguitie should arise, of their courageous 
actes and royall triumph. The king seing himselfe so earnestly 
desyred, and that of his brother in lawe, and suspecting nothing 
lesse then that which was purposed, did gently graunt vnto his 
request. And so sone as the duke had his auhswere, he re- 
turned home to his house and prepared all things necessarie for 
the exployt of his pretended purpose. And when the time drue 
tieere, he came to Oxforde with a great companye of Archers 
md horsemen, and when he came thether he found there all his 
confederates well appointed for the purpose, except the Duke of 
Aumarle Erie of Rudande, for whome they sent messengers in 
^eat haste. Thys Duke of Aumarle went before from West- 
minster to see his father the Duke of Yorke, and sittyng at 
iynner he had his counterpane of the indenture of confederacie 
^whereof is mencion made afore) in his bosome. The father 
sspyed it, and demaunded what it was ? His sonne lowely aun- 
jwered, that it touched not him : By Saint George, quod the 
father, but I will see it, and by force tooke it out of his bosome, 
md when he perceyued the content theireof, and the sixe seales 
set and fixed to the same, whereof the seale of his sonne was one, 
ie sodeynely rouse from the Table, commaundjnag his horses to 
36 saddeled and in a great fury sayd to his sonne : thou Traytor 
:heefe, thou hast bene a Traytor to king Richard, and wilt thou 
lowe be false to thy cosyn king Henry ? Thou knowest well 
nough, that I am thy pledge, Borow, and mainepeme*, bodie for 
Dodie, and for lande and goodes in open Parliament; and goest 
:hou about to seeke my death and destruction? By the holy 
Roode I had rather see thee strangled on a gybbet. And so the 



* Meaning, I ain tbe personal security, or bail, for thy loyalty. In the Statute 
»f Westminster, 3 Edw, I., may be seen what persons be mampernahle, that is, may 
»e let to bayl, and what not. Cowell's Interpreter, rerised by Bishop Kennett, 
ol. Land. 1701, under the word " mainpernable." 

11 



HENRY THE FOURTH, 

Duke of Yorke mounted on horsebacke, to ride to Windsore to 
the king, and to declare the whole matter vnto him. The Duke 
of Aumerie consideryng in what case he stoode in, tooke his 
horse and roade another way to Windsore, ridyng all the way in 
post (which his father beyng an olde man, could not do) and 
when he was alighted at the castell gate, he caused the gates to 
be shut, saiyng that he must nedes deliuer the keyes to the king. 
And when he came before the kinge's presence, he kneeled on 
his knees, beseechyng him of mercie and forgeuenesfee. The 
king demaunded the cause, and he declared vnto him plainly the 
whole confederacie. Well, sayd the king, if this be true, we 
pardon you : if it be feigned, at your extreme perill be it. While 
the king and the duke talked together, the Duke of Yorke knocked 
at the castell gate, whom the king caused to be let in, and there 
he deliuered the indenture which before he had taken from his 
sonne. Which wrytjoig when the king had red and seene, per- 
ceiuyng the signes and seales of the^ confederates, he chaunged 
his former purpose ; for the day before he heard that the chaloners 
[chalengers] and defenders were all in a redinesse, and thought 
the same day to haue gone thether, but now he stayed, and wrote 
his letters foorthwith vnto the Erie of Northumberland his high 
Constable, and to the Erie of Westmerland his high marshall, 
and to dyuers other his ftiendes, of his doubtful daunger and 
perelous ieopardie." 

The issue of this enterprise is too well known to be repeated. 
The confederates suspecting, from the non-appearance of the 
Duke of Aumerie, that treachery or chance had disclosed their 
project, marched boldly to Windsor, hoping to seize the person 
of King Henry, but he had withdrawn to the Tower of London, 
and collected a force that bade defiance to their attempts. 
They then endeavoured to retreat towards Wales, but were de- 
feated at Cirencester by a body of archers headed by the bailiff 
of the place. The Earl of Salisbury was taken and put to death 

12 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

upon the spot. Huntingdon fled into Essex» and endeavoured 
to escape by sea, but being driven back by adverse winds, 
was seized and beheaded at Fleshy. The death of Richard 
followed. 

We have already noticed* the formidable insurrection against 
Henry, at the head of which were Scroop archbishop of York, 
and the Earl Mareschal, son of the duke of Norfolk lately de- 
ceased. Harding, the metrical chronicler, who was brought up 
from a child in the house of Henry Percy, eldest son of the Earl 
of Northumberland, says that it was by the good advice and 
counsel of the archbishop, the articles of complaint and letter 
of defiance were sent to Henry, previously to the battle of 
Shrewsbury. He attributes the signal defeat which Percy and 
the conspirators met with to the treachery of several of the 
leaders. 

" His vncle dere was with hym than dede 
His fadir came noght out of Northumbrelond 
But fayled him fonle without wite or rede — 

* * * * * 

" His caatels all his men than helde fill strong 
To tyme the kynge had graimt him plenar grace 
But than the lordes in counceyle hem amonge 
Right him to help, the sixte yere at the pace ; 
But non durst come that tyme, so fil the cace. 
But busshop Scrope and the erle marchall 
The lord Bardulf than of our lordes all. 

" In lentyn aftir he came home to his loude. 
By parlement hole delivered and aquitte 
And twoo jete aftir in pees I 'niderstond, 
With kinge Henry fill pesiMy did sitte ; 
Than in the yere, as me remembre yette. 



* In the account of Ralph Neville, first Earl of Westmorland, p. 5. 

13 



HENRY THE FOURTH, 

Of his regne sext, the busshop Scrope than went. 
The erie marchall with hym, of oon entent 

" To Yorkes More, and there assembled power 
Of their owne and of their frendis also, 
Of the erles men of Northumbrelond that were 
To the novmbre of twenty thousand tho, 
Afore the daye assigned, that was so 
By the erle than of Northumbirlond, 
That their chifteyne with hem shulde haue stond, 

" With other lordes that were to hem assent. 
But the busshop and the erle marchall 
Wer slayne afore the day of assignement 
By twene hem made afore in speciall. 
Heded were than nere York as than did fall. 
Sir John Lamplewe and Sir William Plompton 
With the busshop, were heded there for treson *." 

In the collection of the statutes and in WUkins's " Concilia" 
we have a fuE account of those proceedings against the Lollards, 
that disgraced the reign of Henry the Fourth, and we there find 
the first act of parliament that adjudges the punishment of being 
brent to death for heresy. William Sautre, a chaplain at St. 
Osith's in London, was the first victim who suffered after this 
inhuman enactment. The order addressed to the mayor and 
sheriffs of London commands them " coram populo igni committi 
ac ipsum in eodem igne realiter comburi fac, in hujusmodi cri- 
minis detestationem, aliorumque cristianorum exemplum mani- 
festum." Of how little avail this sanguinary act proved, the 
Reformation furnishes the most decided attestation. 

The reign of Henry the Fourth has not been badly epitomized 
by a writer hitherto, we believe, unknown, and of whom we can dis- 
cover nothing more than that his name was Jekyll, and that he 



* Hardyng's Chronicle, MS. chap. 204. 
14 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

lived in the latter end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth and the be- 
ginning of that of James I. His treatise, which is still in MS., com- 
prises a brief account of the Sovereigns and Barons of England from 
the'time of the conquest : it was in Mr. Holman's possession, and 
at his sale was purchased by Dr. Rawlinson. " Henry the Fourth 
hauing deposed king Richard the Second, he was crowned and 
eniiironized 1399 with great royaltie ; who, as became his vsurped 
government, by supportation of some, and with the greate grudge 
of many, contrarie to his oath taken at his coming from exile, 
so had he a most troublesome and afflicted time therein ; in so 
much as it might occasion some meruaile among the wise, how a 
Prince of his rare excellencie (who might haue lined in high 
honour and estate next vnto the highest) could, through a little 
pricke of ambition, make a shipwracke both of his conscience 
(before God) and of his quiet among men. When he was pos- 
sessed of a regall throne, he became most provident of his owne 
estate, and carefuU how to maintaine his coiiaon-wealth. Both 
in the feUd and at home he was himselfe chief captaine and coun- 
sailor. He gouerned with the strength of harte and wisdome, 
and could quickly discouer conspiracies and treasons, and vsed 
sure and boulde remedies for the same, which in despite of all 
practizers continued him a kinge even to the graue. He was 
not stained with any notable cryme, but his valour and other 
vertues were comparable with any prince of his tyme. 

" This kinge lying in an extreame fitt of appoplexie (as de- 
priued of his spirits) in which sicknes he had languished certaine 
weekes, hauing his crowne standing vpon his piUow, the Prince 
his Sonne (and others) supposed hym dead, and tooke the crowne 
away*, which the kinge, when he recouered, missing, the Prince 
retoumed it with all humble dutie, and vpon some speeches 



* See a curious account of this transaction in the article of Henry V. 

15 



HENRY THE FOURTH, 

passed betwene them, the kinge presentlie deceased on Sonday 
the 20th of March 1412 in the 14th yeare of his raigne and the 
46 of his age." 

In the Sloane MS., No. I776 (which is a continuation of 'the 
" Vita Ricardi II." by a monk of Evesham, printed by Heame, 
but brought down to a later period from anonymous sources) 
after mentioning the execution of archbishop Scrope, the " 2nd 
feria Pentecost, on the feast of the translation of Saint William 
of York," the writer continues, " Eodem die, et eodem tempore 
diei quo passus est iste episcopus Eboraci, percussus est [scilicet 
Henricus IV.] in facie, viz. infra nasum, ex infirmitate lepre 
detestabUis, ita quod nunquam posterius valuit a medico aut me- 
dicina curari." The writer continues by declaring his inability 
to account for this severe visitation : " an ipsa infirmitas ex vin- 
dicta (on account of the archbishop's death) aut aliquo praesagicx 
vel fortuna evenit, determinare nequeo, sed private Dei judicio 
remitto." The Roman Catholics religiously believed that it was 
a mark of the divine displeasure for the murder, as they were 
pleased to term the execution, of their martyred saint. 

Among the Harleian MSS., No. 283, is the Household Book 
of King Henry IV. containing an account of his expenses, jewds, 
&c. &c. compiled by Sir John Straunge " contrarotularius" from 
Sept. 7. to Dec. 8. Anno 8. 

The monument of King Henry the Fourth and his Queen, 
Joan of Navarre, stands on the nortli side of Trinity Chapel, in 
the Cathedral Church of Canterbury, directly opposite to that of 
Edward the Black Prince. The Tomb and Effigies are entirely 
of alabaster, but the remains of painting and gilding which occur 
on various parts plainly demonstrate that little of the material 
was originally left uncovered. The east end or foot of the tomb 
is placed close against the pier supporting the arch under which 
the monument stands, a considerable space being left between 
the head and the corresponding opposite pier. The canopy 

16 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

work with which the sides of the tomb are enriched are precisely 
the same on the north and south sides, but' at the head or west 
end, which consists of three canopies, that in the centre differs 
from all the rest, in being larger, and containing the figure of an 
angel holding an emblazoned shield. The canopies at the east 
end terminate at the pier against which the tomb is placed. 

The slab on which the effigies lie is finished on the margin on 
each side with a series of small canopies, supporting the two 
large canopies over the heads ofthe principal figures ; each small 
canopy originally containing a figure of which nothing but the 
pedestal now remains. The King and Queen are represented in 
royal robes, with coronets on their heads. The feet of the former 
rest against a lion couchant ; and on each side of the Queen the 
head of a small animal appears from underneath the folds of the 
drapery. The arms of the Queen are broken away almost as far 
as the elbows, and the hands of the King are much mutilated ; 
but it is quite clear, from the small attached fragments, that her 
right, and his left, hand each held a sceptre, and that the other 
was occupied in sustaining the rich cordon for drawing together 
the mantle. Both their heads rest on a double cushion supported 
on each side by an angel. The Queen wears round her neck a 
collar of SS., one of the earliest instances of the use of this de- 
coration. The coronets and extremities of the dresses of both 
figures are highly enriched with representations of jewels and 
embroidery of the finest design and most admirable execution. 
There can be but little doubt that this monument was the work- 
manship of one of the ablest artists of the time ; and, as the fea- 
tures have sustained but little injury, and are marked with that 
decided character which belongs to a portrait alone, we may fairly 
conclude that the artist has transmitted to us a faithful repre- 
sentation of the features of the royal personages. The canopies 
over the heads of the effigies are much dilapidated, but sufficient 
remains to render a restoration of the parts lost a matter of perfect 

17 



HENRY THE FOURTH, 

certainty : it has therefore been attempted in the plate of the 
effigies, for the purpose of giving an adequate idea of the beauty 
of the monument in its perfect state. 

The canopy extending from pier to pier over the tomb is en- 
tirely of wood, and has at each end, placed close against the pier, 
a support of the same material. Originally the whole was richly 
gilt and painted with a vari'ety of designs, armorial bearmgs, 
badges, and other devices ; of this enrichment traces only now 
remain. Mr. Carter, in his " Illustrations of Ancient Painting 
and Sculpture," has given a copy of the martyrdom of Thomas a 
Becket from the pannel against the west pier ; of this painting 
scarcely a particle is now visible. Gough states, that in the cor- 
responding pannel against the opposite pier was a figure of an 
angel holding a shield emblazoned with arms similar to those 
at the head of the tomb : this is also nearly obliterated. Three 
shields in the roof of the canopy, each surrounded with SS. linked 
together, are tolerably distinct : at one end is France and England 
quarterly, at the other Evereux and Navarre quarterly, and in 
the centre the first impaling the last. The words " soverayne" 
and " a temperance" are repeated alternately in diagonal lines 
running across the roof, the first divided by a bird volant sur- 
mounted by a coronet, and the last by a small animal similarly 
surmounted. The spaces between the lines are diapered with 
small sprigs terminating in flowers. In front the canopy is di- 
vided on each side into three compartments, by slender turrets 
rising above the summit, and originally terminating at the base 
by the full length figure of an angel holding a shield. The 
turrets still remain, but the angels, with the exception of one or 
two, have all disappeared. The word " soverayne" is repeated 
six times in the deep cornice on the south, and " a temperance" 
on the north, side of the canopy : the intervals between the rich 
border of foliage which crowns its summit contain each a small 
emblazoned shield. 

18 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

We are again indebted to Mr. Willement for the following 
heraldic illustrations to the tomb in question : 

In the centre of the canopy ceiling are the arms of King 
Henry, viz. 

Quarterly. 1 & 4. Azure, three fleurs de lis, 2 & 1 . or. France. 

2 & 3. Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale, or. England, im- 

paling those of his Queen, viz. 
Quarterly. 1 & 4. Azure, semee de lis, or, a bendlet gobone argent and gules. 
Evreux. 

3 & 3. Gules, an orle, saltire, and cross, composed of chains*, and 

conjoined, or, Nararre. 

These are surrounded by a collar of twenty-three SS. connected 
at the bottom by two buckles and a trefoiled loop, to which is 
attached a golden eagle with wings expanded. 

At the western end of the ceiling are the arms of the Monarch, 
alone, surrounded by a similar collar. At the other extremity 
are the maiden arms of the Queen, within the same sort of orna- 
ment. 

The ornamental ground of the soffit appears to have been twice 
planted, and in diflPerent designs. The under one, which is in 
many parts very perceptible, consisted of eagles and greyhounds, 
each surrounded by the garter, and placed alternately in diagonal 
stripes ; between which were written the words " soverayne" 
and " a temperance." In the last painting the ground has been 
blue, with sprigs and flowers of gold and green. Here the words 
occupy the principal lines, and eagles (with wings expanded and 
crowned, or) and gennets t (sable, collared, chained, and covered 
with a large crown, or) are used as stops between the several 
words. 

* Gough copies Sandford's error, and calls it an Escarbuncle. 

t Sandford, Gen. Hist, calls this animal an Ermine ; Gough, from its colour, 
supposes it might have been meant for the Sable. There is however considerable 
reason to think that the Gennet was intended, and that it, as well as the Eagle, 
was a badge of King Henry. Vide " Regal Heraldry," p. 32. 

19 



HENRY THE FOURTH, 

Round the upper edge of the qomipe to this canopy, the 
spaces between the fleurons of the crown ornament have been 
filled by shields of arms ; but few of these remain. The fol- 
lowing are the only varieties that now exist, and they are several 
times repeated : 

1. Gules, three water-budgets 2 & 1, argent. 

Being the arms of William Baron de Ros, Lord Treasurer of England. 
He died 2 H. 5. 

2. Quarterly, 1 & 4, argent, 2 & 3, gules, a fret, or. Over all a bendlet sable. 

This certainly appears to be the coat of Despencer, but as Thos. Earl 
of Gloucester, the last heir male of that family, was beheaded 1 H. 4. 
for concerting the surprisal of King Henry at Windsor, it appears 
unlikely that any memorial of him would be placed on that King's 
monument. 

3. Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or. England. 

4. Or, a chevron gules. 

Humphrey Earl of Stafford, afterwards Duke of Buckingham, collate- 
rally related to the King. He died 38 H. 6. 

5. Barry, argent and azure. 

Richard Baron Grey de Codnor. He was one of the witnesses to the 
King's will, and is therein styled his chamberlain. He died 6 H. 5. 

6. Argent a cross gules. St. George. 

7. Quarterly gules and or ; in the first quarter a mullet, argent. 

Richard de Vere, Earl of Oxford. He died 4i H. 5. 

8. Gules, a saltire argent. 

Ralph Nevil, Earl of Westmorland, Earl Marshal of England during 
the reign of King Henry IV. He died 4 H. 6. 

9. Azure, three chevronels braced, and a chief, or. 

Henry Baron Fitz Hugh, who was employed by the King in several 

embassies. He died 3 H. 6. 
10. Gules, three escallops 2 & 1, argent. 

Thomas Baron Dacre. He died 36 H. 6. 
1 ) . Or on a chief gules, three plates. 

St. Thomas de Camojs, knight of the garter. He died 9 H. 5. 
12. Azure, a bend, or. 

Richai-d Baron Scrope de Bolton. He died 7 H. 5. 
20 



.J* 




I>rawQ 'by-EBloTe 



Fi-oaf 



ruilistuid May 1S26- by Hardint A IfHtird Puil MuU M^^t, /,ondj,n,. 






^ 



KING OF ENGLAND. 

13. Argent on a chief azure, two mullets, or, pierced gules. 

William Clinton, Baron Clinton and Say. He died 1 1 H. 6. 

14. Azure, a fret, or. Amonderille .^ 

15. Azure, a chief indented, or. Dunham ? 

In addition to these, it appears by Gough, that in his time 
there were also the arms of Bourchier, Burgh, Quincy, and of 
the kingdom of Scotland. 

On the tomb, the royal lion supports the feet of the King's 
effigy ; at the feet of his consort are two animals, scaled minutely 
like lizards, with strong claws and short ears, but their tails con- 
cealed. These are neither collared nor chained, and therefore 
differ in most respects from the painted animals on the canopy, 
which have been sometimes supposed to have been appropriate 
to the Queen. 

21 





p 





^ 


^ 


S3: 


F^ 


5- 


s5 


^ 


■s 


^ 
S 


^ 


,!> 


M 


^ 

■^ 


e 


ri 


^1 


as 


•H 


4i 
1 


^ 




3 



THOMAS FITZALAN, 

EARL OF ARUNDEL. 
OB. 1415. 

MONUMENT AT ARUNDEL. 

Thomas Fitzalan was the eldest son of Richard, Earl of 
Arundel, by Elizabeth, daughter of William de Bohun, Earl of 
Northampton. From his earliest years he may be regarded as an 
opponent to King Richard the Second, and the partisan of Henry 
Bolingbroke. His father, who was a valiant soldier, and one who 
had done good service to his king and country, incurred the dis- 
pleasure of Richard by opposing the proceedings of his tw6 
favourites Vere and De-la-Pole, and having been entrapped by 
fair words into that monarch's power was beheaded on Tower-hUl, 
in 1397 *j and under circumstances of no common barbarity. 
His own son-inJaw, Thomas Mowbray, bound his eyes (Dugdale 
says, was his executioner, but it is probable that he only super- 
intended the ceremony in virtue of his oflSce of Earl Marshall) j 
the Earl of Kent, his nephew, had the command of the guard, 
and the king himself witnessed the execution. The Earl behaved 
with, the greatest fortitude and calmness : Walsingham isays that 
he betrayed no greater dejection nor change of countenance than 
if he had been proceeding to a banquet : his indignation was 
indeed roused when he beheld the indecent attendance of his 
near relatives, and reproaching them with much dignity and 



^ Gough, follovdng Dugdale, saysj that- the Earl was beheaded in Cheapside, and 
places his death in 1399^ but this is at variance with all tKe best authorities. 

1 



THOMAS FITZALAN, 

feeling, he told them, that it would have rather become them to 
have been absent on such an occasion, than to witness those 
sufferings which they knew not how soon they might themselves 
be called on to undergo. " Intuens comes Arundeliae comitem 
marescallum et comitem Cantii suos affines et necessarios (nam 
alter gener ejus erat, alter nepos ex filia) perurgere negotium 
decoUationis suse, vere inquit, decuisset vos praecipue absentes 
fuisse, et ab isto negotio subtraxisse. Sed tempus adveniet, 
quando tot mirabuntur de vestris infortuniis, quot de meis casi- 
bus nunc mirantur: sicque flexo poplite vultu constantissimo 
decapitari sustinuit, nee plus expalluit, quam si fuisset ad epulas 
invitatus. Cujus corpus cum capite inter fratres Augustinenses 
Londoniis est humatum." By the will of Earl Richard, which is 
dated March 4, 1392, he directs that he may be buried in the 
abbey of Lewes, in a spot which he had pointed out to the prior 
and to father Asheboume his confessor, and where, if his wife 
was not already laid, she was to be brought. He was however, 
undoubtedly, interred in the church of the Austin Friars, and so 
beloved was he by the common people, that they made pilgrimages 
to the place of burial, and reported, among other wonders, that his 
head and trunk were miraculously reunited after his execution. 
Richard, who had some misgivings of conscience, became so 
alarmed by his own fears, and as the writers of his own day tell 
us, by the visions that haunted him, that on the tenth day after 
his burial, he sent several of his courtiers " duces et comites" in 
the middle of the night, to take up the body and report upon the 
truth of this commonly believed miracle. Finding, as maybe 
conjectured, that no supernatural favour had been shown to the 
remains of this unfortunate nobleman, the monks were directed to 
remove all the armorial bearings (signa) around the body, and 
the grave was levelled. Mr. Gough seems to think that no 
monument was erected to him, but it is now certain that this 
tribute to his memory and misfortunes was provided for in the 



EARL OF ARUNDEL. 

next reign by his son ; and the fulfilment of his pious bequest is 
fully corroborated by Fabyan : " The erle of Arundell accordynge 
to the sentence upon hym geuen, vpon the morowe folowynge 
the feest of seynt Mathewe, bejmge Saterdaye and the xxii daye 
of Septembre, was ladde on foote vnto theTowrehyU, beinge 
accompanyed with great strength of men, for so moche as it was 
demyd that he shuld haue ben rescowyd by the way ; howe be 
it none suche was attemptyd ; but peasably he was brought vnto 
the sayde place of execucion and there pacientlye and mekely 
toke his deth, whose body after was by the fryers Augustynes 
borne vnto theyr place within the warde of Brade strete of 
London, and there in the north syde of the quyer solempnely 
buried, and after, vpon his graue a sumptuouse toumbe of marble 
stone sette and edyjyed." 

We now come to the more immediate subject of the present 
memoir. Lest any thing should be wanting on the part of 
Richard and his advisers to keep alive the indignation of the 
youthful Earl of Arundel, the parliament on the first day of its 
meeting deprived him in perpetuum of all right to, and enjoy- 
ment of, his paternal property, which was bestowed on the newly 
created dukes of Hereford, Norfolk, Dorset, and other the king's 
friends : he was himself placed under the care of the Duke of 
Exeter, and kept at his castle of Reigate, in the immediate 
custody of Sir John Shelley, from whom however he contrived 
to escape* (by the assistance of one William Scott, designated 
by HoUnshed " mercer"), and reached his uncle the late arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, then sojoummg at Cologne, in safety. It 
may be easily imagined that the Earl of Arundel was one of the 



* Froissart says that Humphrey Plantagenet and the Earl of Arundel (whom he 
erroneously calls RtchartT) did not join Henry till he arrived at Cirencester. In 
this however he seems to have been mistaken. 

3 



THOMAS FITZALAN, 

first of. the English noblemen who joined the standard of Henry 
Bolingbroke; he returned to England with that prince, and in 
the first parUament holden after the new king had ascended the 
throne the judgment against his father was reversed, and he was 
restored to his honours and estates. Now it was that the Earl 
of Arundel's revenge, for the cruelty shown to his father and the 
indignities offered to himself, was fuUy satiated : Henry had no 
sooner obtained possession of the person of Richard, than he 
committed him to the custody of Humphrey Plantagenet, son of 
the Duke of Gloucester, and to the Earl, who (says our authority) 
hated him more than any men in the world, because he had put 
their fathers to death, " et lors le bailla en garde au filz du due 
de clocestre et au filz du conte darondel, lesquelz le haioient plus 
que tons les hommes du monde, car le roy richart avoit fait morir 
leurs peres." The speech addressed to these young noblemen 
by Henry, when he delivered the deposed monarch to their 
keeping, must have been ominous of the treatment he was likely 
to receive ; " here," said he, " is the murderer of your fathers ; 
you must be answerable for him." 

At the coronation of King Henry, " Thomas Earle of Arundell,. 
cheefe butler of England (says Holinshed), obteined to exercise 
that office the daie of the coronation, and had the fees thereto 
belonging granted to him, to wit, the goblet with which the king 
was serued, and other things to that his ofiice apperteining (the, 
vessels of wine excepted that laie vnder the bar, which were 
adiudged vnto the lord steward, the said earle of Arundel's 
claime notwithstanding.") The intelligent contributor of a very 
valuable *' French metrical history of the deposition of King 
Richard the Second" to the Archaeologia would have the Earl 
baker, as well as butler, on that occasion * ; but the French text 



* Archaeologia, XX. 207. 
4 



EARL OF ARUNDEL; 

QorroborateS Holinshed's authority, and adds that he was young^ 
and active, in the full bloom of youth and vigour of manhood. 

Apres de wervvic le conte, 

De quoy ilz tiehnent moult grant copte, 

Fu ce propre iour panetier ; 

Et si estoit grant bouteillier 

Un, qui fu conte darondelj 

Qui est assez jeune et ysnel. 

At the same time he was created knight of the Bath. 

In the sixth of Henry the Fourth, on the morrow after the 
feast of St. Catherine (Nov. 26, 1404), the Earl of Arundel was 
united to Beatrice, the illegitimate daughter of John, King of 
Portugal. The ceremony was solemnized in London, in the 
presence of the King and Queen, who appear to have taken a 
great interest in the matter. We are indebted for an account of 
some valuable documents relative to this marriage to the liberal 
kindness of Mr. Frederick Madden, a gentleman to whose zeal, 
industry, and intelligence, as well as accurate information on all 
subjects connected with literary history and antiquities, we bear 
a most willing testimony, and to whom we readily acknowledge 
our obligations for many most essential services in the course of 
this, our present, undertaking. 

In the British Museum (MS. Cotton, Nero, B. 1.) is a collec- 
tion of public papers between England and Portugal, from the 
year 1387 to the reign of Elizabeth. Among these is a letter, 
which we shall insert, from the Earl of Arundel to Henry the 
Fourth, requesting him to bestow the living of Stokenhamme in 
Devonshire (then fallen into his hands by the death of Thomas 
Mountague, or Montacute, Dean of Salisbury), on Adam Dam- 
port, Chancellor to the Queen of Portugal, Henry's sister. He 
assigns as a reason for his request, the good offices the Chancellor 
had done him in his affairs, meaning in the treaty of marriage 
between himself and Beatrice ; and concludes by requesting the 

5 



THOMAS FITZALAN, 

king not to be displeased at his not receiving payment of a sum 
of money due to him, which the Earl says he is unable to dis- 
charge, first on account of the destruction of his estates * in 
Wales, and secondly by reason of the great expenses he had in- 
curred in bringing over his wife : this is dated June 25, [1405, 
7 Hen. IV.] 

" Tresexcellent trespuissant & tressouerein seignur, Jeo moy recomans a 
vre hautesse sy humblement come ieo say ou pluis puisse, Et trespuissant 
seignur vous please assauoir q Mestre Thomas Mountagu Dean de Salesbirs 
est a dieux comaundez, p qi mort lesglise de Stokeidiame en le Countee de 
Deuenshire est ore voide, la donesoun de quele a vous apptient a cause del 
meindre age le Conte de Salesbirs en vre garde esteant. Que please a vre 
Roial Mageste gunter la dee esglise a Mestre Adam Damport le Chaun- 
celler du Roigne de Portugal ma tshonure Dame vre Soere. Entendantz 
trespuissant seignur qil mad fait oy bone luice en mes affaires q ieo suy 
luy toutefoitz tenuz, et si ascune chose fuisse en moun poair de faire pur 
luy, ieo luy le ferroie adec'tes pur lonur de ma dee Dame la Roigne de 
Portugal. Et trespuissant seignur vous supplie q vous ne displease del 
nounparement de money q ieo doy a vre hautesse a ceste foitz, car en bone 
foy, qoy pur le distrucon de mes terres en Gales & la gund charge q ieo y 
porte, & qoy pur les gundes charges q iay encountre la venue ma Muliere, 
ieo ne suy de poair de le faire vnqore, mes a pluis tost q ieo le p*ray c'teine- 
ment eut s'rez bn paie si Dieux plest. Tresexcellent trespuissant & tres- 
sou'ein seigmu:, luy toutpuissaunt vous ottroie honur ioie & pspite, bone vie 
& longe a voz honurables desirs. Escript a mou Chastell' Darundell' le 
XXV io^ de Juyn. 

Vre humble lige Thomas 7 

Conte Darundell' & de Surr'." \ 



* The Earl's property in Wales and on the borders, according to Dugdale, in- 
cluded the manors of Doditon, Hejrthe, Stretton, Lydeley, Conede^ Acton-rounde, 
Wrockcestre, Upton, Sonford, Osleton, with the castles of Dynas-bran and Leons, 
and land of Bromfield and Yale ; to which we may add Chirke and Chirkdande, 
and Oswestre hundred. Rymer's Foedera, vol. viii. 181, 182. 

t MS. Cotton; Nero, B. 1. fol. 30. 

6 



EARL OF ARUNDEL. 

The next letters in this curious collection are three in Pdrtu- 
guese, addressed by the King of Portugal to Henry the Fourth, 
respecting the marriage of his daughter with the Earl of Arundel, 
and signed with his own hand. In the first he acknowledges the 
receipt of a letter from Henry by the hands of Sir John Vasquez 
d'Almadana and Dr. Martin Dossem*, who had been employed 
on an embassy into England, in which letter Henry had expressed 
his concurrence in the plans relative to the match of John's 
daughter, previously intimated to him by John Gomez and the 
ambassadors above mentioned. He also tells Henry to expect a 
second communication by the hands of the above named Martin, 
with regard to the arrangements for the departure of Donna 
Beatrice, and other matters connected with the marriage. Dated 
at Lisbon the twenty-ninth of October [6 Hen. IV. 1404 1]. 

In the second letter, which is also given in the present work, 
the King of Portugal states the sum of money paid to the Earl 
of Arundel by way of dowry with his daughter, namely 50,000 
crowns, 25,000 of which he received on the day he received the 
lady, and surety for the remainder. He requests also letters of 
protection for the Portuguese merchants, their ships and cargoes, 
who had undertaken to deliver the said surety to the Earl. 
Dated the twenty-ninth of October [7 Hen. IV. 1405]. 

" Muytalto muy Nobre & muy ex9elente & Poderoso Prin9ipe Dom 
Henrique pela gra9a de Deus I'Rey dTngraterra & de Fran9a & Senhor 
d'Irlanda. Nos Dom Johatn per essa meesma gra9a Rey de Portugal & 
do Algarue de todo nosso Cora9om uos enuyamos muyto saudar como a 
IrmSao & verdadeiro amigo q muy fielment' & uerdideiramente amamos & 



* He is called in an instrument preserved in Bymer, Martin de Sensu. 

f Henry the Fourth ascended the throne on the 29th of September, consequently 
the 29th of October was within the first mouth of the 6th year of that monarch's 
reign. 



THOMAS FITZALAN, 

pre9amos sobf todos os Prin9ipes do mudo & pa q deseiamos q d's de saude 
5r vida ca grande exal9amento dhonrra. Muy Poderoso Prinjipe & nosso 
muy prezado IrmSao & amigo, treemos q bem sabedes como no trautamento 
do Casamento do Conde dSarandel c5 dona Beatriz minhafilha, foy Acordado 
& firmado q Nos Ihe dessemos co ella CinqOenta mill Coroas. Eq qftdo Ihe 
fosse entregue a dcca ininha filha Ihe fossem logo pagadis as vijnte & 9inqo 
mil CoroaSi Eq poUas outras vijnte & 9inq<' mil Ihe dessemos alio em In- 
graterra fian9a de q se elle contentasse. Eora alguus m'cadores nossos 
naturaaes temarom encafrego de darem alio aodcco Conde adcS fian9a. 
Edifoin hos q pa apoderem dar Ihes conuijnha enuyarem alio huS Soma de 
m'cadorias. Eq se Re9eaum delhis seerem tomadas ou enbargadas p os 
Nauyos da uossa tfra q andam darmada, ou despois q as alio tenessem per 
j^azom das diuidas q he dcco q alio deuemos, ou por outra algua rrazom*. 
Epedirom nos por m'cce q uos screuessemos q Ihis dessedes uossa c^ca p q 
as m'cadorias q assi alio enuyassem pa esta cousa & os Nauyos ^ as leuassem 
fossenl seguros. E Por qftto muy nobf & muy honrrado Irmaao & amigo 
Nos conpre teermos alio esta fianga §'ta ant' q daco enuyemos adcca minha 
filha segundo vos bem poderedes entender. Rogamosuos q polio uosso uos 
plaza de dardes c'ca uossa aos dccos m'cadores p q seiam Seguras as m'ca- 
dorias & cousas q a uossa terra enuyarem p rrazom da dcca fianga & os 
nauyos q as leuarem, q no seiam tomadas ne enbargadas p nenhuus do uosso 
Senhorro, asy no mar como despois q alio em uossa tfra forem postas, por 
rrazom da dcca diuida q dizem q alio deuemos, ne por outra ne hua cousa. 
Efaredes em ello cousa q nos muyto grade9eremos. Muy exgelent & Pode-, 
roso Pringipe, nosso muy amado Irmaao, a scca t'ijndade uos aia em sua 
scca guada & encomenda & acre9ent' ouosso stado & Honrra. Fcca na Cidade 
de Lixboa xxix. dias domes doucubro. 

(Signed) « J. EL REY;'! 



* The King (Henry IV.) gave letters of protection to the Portuguese merchants, 
which will be found in Rymer, Fcedera, vol. viii. p. 352. 

t MS. Cotton; Nero, B. 1. fol. 33. 

To the. most illustrious, most noble, most excellent, and powerful Prince Don 
Henry, by the grace of God King of England and of France, and Lord of Ireland, 
We, Don John, by the same grace King of Portugal and Algarve, with all our. 
heart send health, as to our brother and true friend, whom we most faithfully and 

8 



EARL OF ARUNDEL. 

In the third letter his Majesty congratulates himself and Henry 
on the final arrangement of his daughter's nuptials with the Earl. 
He then requests Henry to remit to the Earl the payment of two 
thousand marcs which the Earl had borrowed on account of his 
marriage, and which, from the expenses attending it, and the 
losses sustained in war (both which causes, it may be remarked, 
the Earl had himself stated to Henry), he was unable to repay. 
This is dated Lisbon, the last day of October [7 Hen. IV. 1405]. 



truly esteem and love above all the Princes of the world, and to whom we desire 
that God will grant health and life, with great augmentation of honour. Most 
powerful Prince, and our very esteemed brother and friend, you are well acquainted, 
how in the treaty relative to the marriage of the Earl of Arundel with Donna 
Beatrix my daughter, it was agreed and determined, that we would give him with 
her the sum of 50,000 crowns, of which 25,000 should be paid immediately on his 
receiving my said daughter, and for the remaining 25,000 surety should be given 
in England satisfactory to himself. Now some merchants our subjects have under- 
taken to advance the said surety to the said Earl, and have represented unto us, 
that in order to enable them to give it conveniently (?) they would send over a 
quantity of merchandize, which they fear might be captured or arrested by the 
armed vessels of your dominions, or afterwards detained on account of the debt it 
is stated we owe, or for some other cause. And they have prayed us to write to 
you, that you would grant them your letters, by which the merchandizes they shall 
send over for this purpose, and the ships which convey them, may be rendered 
secure. And for as much as, most noble and most honourable brother and friend, 
we pledged ourselves to the fulfilment of this surety, before we sent over our said 
daughter, as you well know, we request you that you would-be pleased to grant 
your letters to the said merchants, by which they may be assured as to the mer- 
chandizes and other things they shall send over to your dominions on account of the 
said surety, and the ships which convey them ; that they shall not be captured nor 
arrested by any of your Nobles, either on the sea, or after their arrival in your 
dominions, on account of the said debt that we owe, nor on any other account. 
And you' will do in this affair what will most greatly oblige us. Most excellent 
and powerful Prince, our very beloved brother, ipay the Holy Trinity have you in 
guard and protection, and augment both yom- prosperity and honour. Written in 
the City of Lisbon, the 29, day of October, 

(Signed) J. THE KING. 

9 



THOMAS FITZALAN, 

Lord Arundel, says Milles, obtained great honour and fame 
for his valiant achievements. Of the precise nature or scene of 
these exploits we are unable to offer any distinct account, but 
sufficient evidence may be gleaned from contemporary instru- 
ments to prove that he was held in high estimation and deemed 
worthy of the most important trusts. 

In the fourth of Henry the Fourth he petitions the King for 
the sum of 27^. 8s., money expended in pay to his men, when in 
obedience to Henrj^s orders he had provided, manned and vic- 
tualed one ship, with twenty-five mariners, together with a barge, 
intended probably to bring back the Queen from Bretagne. It 
would seem that his captain, who was one WUUam Prince, did 
not suffer his lordship's vessel and men to remain unemployed, 
for Rymer gives an instrument in which the King directs him to 
make restitution of a certain barge laden with wine, of which he 
had unjustly and wrongfully made capture. 

In 1405 he was appointed Marshall of England, pro tempore, 
during the absence of the Lord Marshall in the North. 

He was one of the peers in parliament who agreed to the act 
of succession in the seventh of Henry IV. 

In 1409 we find him enjoined by the King, in common with 
the Duke of York, the Earl of Warwick, the Lord Grey de 
Ruthyn, and others, to repel Owen Glendour, and the pretended 
Bishop of St. Asaph *. " Contra praedictos Owinum et episcopum 
praetensum, ac alios rebelles et inimicos nostros praedictos, po- 
tenter et virUiter insurgatis, et ipsos, tam per noctem, quam per 



* This was John Trevor or Trevaur, who had deserted King Richard, to whom 
he was under many obligations, and even pronounced the sentence of deposition 
against him j he was then sent by Henry as ambassador to the court of Spain, to 
justify the proceedings of the new monarch, but upon his return joined Owen 
Glendour, who at that time bid fair for success: upon this last act of baseness and 
ingratitude Henry deprived him of his bishoprick. 

10 



EARL OF ARUNDEL. 

diem, cum equis et armis diligenter et efficaciter insequamini, et 
totum posse vestram ad ipsos oapiendum apponi faciatis." In 
another instrument, teste rege apud Norhampton, he is told that 
the King much marvels, and is greatly disturbed at hearing that 
certain of his officers and retainers had made peace with Owen,, 
to the great detriment of Henry's liege subjects^ inasmuch as it 
gave leisure to Glendour to ravage the surrounding country: 
he is accordingly commanded to hasten thither, and in person 
" guerras contra dictos rebelles nostros, cum toto posse vestro, 
teneatis (says the king) et firmiter teneri et continuari faciatis." 

In the twelfth of Henry IV. he accompanied the Prince of 
Wales to Calais, on his appointment to the government of that 
city, after the death of the Earl of Somerset, and in the following 
year was sent with a force to the aid of the Duke of Burgundy 
against the Duke of Orleans. 

In the first year of Henry the Fifth the Earl of Arundel was 
constituted Warden of the Cinque Ports, Constable of Dover 
castle, and Lord High Treasurer of England, and accompanied 
his royal master into France when, in ,1415, he was about to re- 
cover the inheritance of his ancestors. This expedition cost him 
his life : he was one of several noblemen who were so reduced 
by the distemper prevalent among the English troops at the siege 
of Harfleur, as to be compelled to return to England in hopes of 
recovery ; but the disorder had taken too strong hold on his con- 
stitution to admit (rf remedy, and he died a few months after his 
arrival. Walsingham, in hjs history of Henry V., reports that 
he was poisoned, and repeats the suspicion in his " Ypodigma," 
but there seems no good foundation for such a surmise. On the 
contrary, it would appear that he was aware of his own danger 
and expected his speedy dissolution, for he executed a will three 
days only before his death, in which he provides for his Own 
funeral in the collegiate church of the Holy Trinity at Arundel, 
and directs the erection of the monument here depicted, as well 

11 



THOMAS FITZALAN, 

as another to the memory of his father.. He appoints 130/. 6s. 8d. 
to be expended on his funeral, and in celebrating masses for his 
soul ; and whereas he had made a certain vow to St. John of 
Bridlington, when there with King Henry the Fifth, then Prince 
of "Wales, that he would once every year personally offer to that 
saint, or send, the sum of five marcs during his life, he orders, 
that his executors should forthwith pay all the arrears thereof, 
besides the costs of the messenger. He wills also that they, should, 
build a chapel in honour of the blessed Virgin at Mary Gate^in 
Arundel, and pay the arrears due to all the soldiers who were 
with him at Harfleur. This will is dated the 10th, and he died 
on the 13th, of October. 

We shall conclude this portion of our article with the pedigree 
of Fitzalan from MS. Harl. 1411. 23. 

Aliccj dau. of Marg. de Saluz.=f:Richard Lord Fitzallan, created E. of Arundel 
Ob. 1292. 1 289, in right of his great grandmother Isabell 

Albehy. Ob. 1301. 

71 

Alice, sister and heir of John =j: Edmund Fitzallan, E. of Arundell. Ob. 1326. 
Warren, last E. of Warren. 

Eleanor, d. of Hen. PlantagenetFjpRichard Fitzallan, E. of Arundel, also E. of 



E. of Lancaster, widow of Jo. 
L. Beaumont. Ob. 1372. 



Warren and Surrey. Ob. 1375. 



Elizab. d. of Will, de Bohun, E.=f:Rich. Fitzallan, E. of Arundel, attainted 1397- 



of Northampton. j 

.. r~~ ^ . 



Tho. Fitzallan, E. of Arundel, Warren & Surry, Clune, Oswastre, Bromfield, Yale, 
Holt & Dinas Bran. He was made K. of y' garter by Hen. y' 4. & married 
Beatrix naturall d. of John K. of Portugal). He was a man of singular vertue 
and valour, & at length slayne in y' wares of France y' 3d. of Hen. y' 5th. 1415. 
being also Constable of Doner & L. Warden of y' Cinque Ports. He with his 
wife do ly buried at Arundell castle, being sans issue*, and so y" Earldoms of 



* Beatrice afterwards became the wife of Sir Gilbert Xalbot, who died October 19, 1419. Collins 
(Peerage, art. Earl of Shrewsbury) quotes a letter in the possession of the Duke of Newcastle, from her 
father, the King of Portugal, to Sir John Pelham, who being a favourite of King Henry's, he entreats 
him " to show the Iiady Beatrix, his daughter, bmg deprived of the Earl of Arundel, the same favour 
he had before shown to her." She was thirdly the wife of .Tohn Holland, Earl of Huntingdon, and 
lastly married to John Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire, ancestor by her of the baronets of that name, 
lately extinct. 

12 



EARL OF ARUNDEL. 

Warren and Surrey were deiuided among his sisters, but y" Earldom of ArUndell 
to y' line of his vncle John Fitzallan L. Maltrauers, according to y' entaile aboue 
specified sans issue. 

The monument of Thomas Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, and his 
Countess Beatrice, stands in the middle of the choir of the 
coUegiate church of Arundel. It is entirely of alabaster, except 
the plinth, which is of blue marble. On each side of the tomb 
are nine, and at each end five, small figures of priests, within as 
many niches, each holding in his hands an open book. At the 
top of the tomb is a range of shields with small tracery inter- 
posed : of these there are fourteen on each side, eight at the 
feet, and four at the head. The whole were originally embla- 
zoned with arms, but at the present time these only remain : 
1st, Fitzalan quartering Warren; 2d, the same quartered and 
impaling Beauchamp ; , and 3d, Bohun impaling Fitzalan quar- 
tering Warren as before. Remains of the gilding are perceptible 
on various parts of the tomb. On the top are represented the 
Earl and Countess, reposing beneath a rich canopy, with a 
double cushion, supported at each corner by an angel, under 
their heads, and their hands joined in the attitude of prayer. 
The hair of the Countess is enclosed in a rich net-work of 
pearls, projecting considerably from each side of the head, and 
surmounted by the horn head-dress, altogether one of the richest 
and most extravagant representations of this extraordinary fashion. 
Round her neck is a small chain,' from which is suspended a locket. 
The sleeves are tight and seamed with pearls. The margin of the 
mantle and petticoat are richly embroidered, the latter fitting 
tight to the body as low as the hips, whence it descends in 
straight folds, entirely covering the feet. On each side a small 
dog is seated, holding in its mouth the extremity of the mantle. 
The Earl is represented in robes, his hair cut close round his face, 
a coUar of SS hangs from his neck, and at his feet is a horse. 
The design and execution of the canopies are extremely beautiful, 

13 



THOMAS FITZALAN, EARL OF ARUNDEL. 

particularly the tracery in the roofs, and the small heads and 
foliage at the intersection of the ribs. The back of each of the 
canopies is finished with tracery, in the centre of which is a beau- 
tiful little niche and pedestal to receive a figure. This interesting 
monument has sustained injury in various parts. The hands, of 
the principal figures are destroyed; many of the small figures on 
the sides of the tomb have lost their heads, and are otherwise 
mutilated. Almost all the canopies have in a greater or less 
degree shared the same fate, and the small figures have entirely 
disappeared from the niches at the backs of the principal canopies. 
A portion of the original fence of wrought iron inclosing the 
tomb still remains, and is a curious specimen of that species of 
work ; but as it has a tendency rather to obstruct the view, it has 
been partly omitted in the annexed plate. There is no inscrip- 
tion nor any armorial bearing remaining, excepting those already 
described. 

14. 





(C, 



w 

a 
e 



w, 




fe' 


,fl 






f^ 


1 


L^ 


(=- 


«i 


fs. 




© 


p^ 


* 


e 






"d 




■§ 


y 


t^ 






1^ 



a 
fe 



RALPH NEVILLE, 

FIRST EARL OF WESTMORLAND. 

Ob. 1425. 
monument at 8ta1ndbop. 

It would, perhaps, be impossible to point out a family more 
distinguished in English history, for its antiquity and splendor, 
for its wealth and power, or for the martial valour, or diplomatic 
ability, of its several members, than the illustrious house of 
Neville. John Lord Neville, father of the nobleman whose 
monument is now given, appears to have been a person qf very 
various and splendid talents. In the earlier part of the reign 
of King Edward the Third, he was conspicuous for his prowess 
in the contests with France; and, accordingly, we find him 
knighted for his valour at the barriers of Paris. He was 
afterwards appointed Admiral of the Fleet, and, in the last year 
of that monarch, had the important, and no very easy, mission, 
" to settle all things in quiet, in the marches of Scotland, in 
reference to the injuries done by the subjects -of each kingdom 
to one another." To omit a great variety of ofiices of trust, 
with which he appears to have been invested, and which he 
filled with equal honour to himself, and benefit to his country, 
during the ireigns of King Edward and Richard the Second, 
we lastly have mention made of him as lieutenant of Aquitane, 
in the execution of which important duty, he won in battle, or 
received, by surrender, not less than eighty-three walled towns, 
castles, and forts. 

John Lord Neville was twice married : by his first wife, 
Maud, daughter of the Lord Percy, he had issue Ralph, the 

1 



RALPH NEVILLE, 

subject of the present article—by his second, who was Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heir to William Lord Latimer, he had John, 
afterwards Lord Latimer, who died without issue, whereby his 
large possessions came into the hands of his half and elder 
brother. 

Ralph Neville was born, it appears, in 1365, being twenty- 
four years of age at the death of his father, which happened in 
1389, 12 Rich. IL He had entered upon public life before this 
event took place ; being, in 7 Rich. II., associated, with the 
Earl of Northumberland, his father, and some others, in a 
commission to receive twenty-four thousand marcs, as a 
satisfaction for the ransom of David Bruce. He was also joint- 
governor of the castle and city of Carlisle, with Thomas, son of 
the Lord Clifford ; was a commissioner for the guardianship of 
the west marches, and had received the honour of knighthood. 
It is probable, indeed, that the example and instructions of hi;B 
father tended, much to prepare him for this early introduction 
to, the notice of his sovereign, for he could have been barely 
nineteen when the King of Scotland's ransom was to be 
received ; nor could his own merits and character have suffi- 
ciently developed themselves to entitle him to so prominent a 
distinction. i ; 

AiHhbugh the life of this noblemdn was one passed in the 
constant execution of many public and most important duties, 
we, have now little to record of him, except to give a bare 
catalogue of the diplomatic arrangements entrusted to his care, 
or to enumerate the continued acquisitions of wealth and power 
which flowed' upon him during the reigns of three successive 
monarchs. Immediately upon his father's death, his jdjntr 
governorship of Carlisle, together with the custody of the 
marches, were renewed ; he obtained the King's charter for a 
weekly market^ and an yearly fair, at his lordship of Middle- 
ham J permission to enclose his woods, and to make a park, at 

2 



FIRST EARL OF WESTMORLAND. 

Raskelff ; and was constituted warden of all the King's forests 
beyond Trent, for life. ' <■■•('■ h> d- :.«; 

In the fourteenth of Richard II. he occurs as one of. the 
commissioners to treat with those from the kings of France ;and 
Scotland, on the subject of the truce i made. between those 
sovereigns and the King. of England; and in the eighteenth of 
the same reign, he was included in a similar commission, to treat 
of peace with the Scots. , . : ,> 

In the twenty-first of Richard II. he was made constable of 
the Tower of London; and in the parliament, holden soon after 
Christmas in that year, he was advanced to the title of Earl of 
Westmorland, being the first person upon whom this distinction 
was conferred. ,• . o<; n). m^-" ;' 

"Being," says 'Dugdale,. " of the privy -council to King 
Richard, he obtained from him the honor of Penrethj. with its 
appurtenances; as also all those royalties in the county of 
Westmorland, which justly belonged to the crown, and which 
had been unduly withheld by the heirs of Robert de Vipount, 
to enjoy during his life: butj upon thelanding of Henry, iDuke 
of Lancaster, at Ravenspur, this Earl, with other <of the nobles 
who feared the King's tyranny, (aliique domini, qui tiraebant 
regis tyrannidem plures valde, are Walsingham's words,) met 
him, and was one of those who attended him at Westminster, 
upon the morrow after Michaelmas-day, where, and at which 
time. King Richard made a formal resignation of the govern- 
ment, desiring that the same Henry, Duke of Lancaster, might 
succeed him therein." ^^ '" 

It is not unlikely that the terror and disgust naturally 
attendant on the ill-advised and tyrannical measures of the 
King, might have their weight with the Earl of Westmorland ; 
but a much more powerful inducement with that nobleman to 
forsake his former benefactor will appear, when we recollect the 
family connection that subsisted between himself and Henry 

3 



RALPH NEVILLE, 

Bolinbroke, in consequence of the Earl's marriage with Joan de 
Beauford ; his wife being half-sister to the claimant of the 
throne. The Earl of Westmorland's support was not more 
important to the cause of Henry the Fourth, than the prospect 
of fresh acquisitions and advancement secure to that nobleman, 
in the event of his half-brother's obtaining, and keeping posses- 
sion of the crown ; and to -both the Henrys, indeed, father and 
son, he appears to have been a most active, zealous, and 
faithful adherent. 

The name of the Earl of Westmorland is well known to 
many English readers, who are not very conversant in the 
annals and antiquities of their country, from the circumstance 
of the introduction of that nobleman, by our immortal Shak- 
speare, in his dramatic histories of. "King Henry the Fourth." 
The present Ralph Neville is the identical Earl of Westmorland, 
who makes so prominent a figure in that part of the play where 
the insurrection of Archbishop Scrope, and the subtilty by 
which his army was disbanded, and himself and his associates 
captured, is represented in terms, accordant, indeed, with the 
chronicles from which our bard extracted his historical ma- 
terials, but which cannot fail to excite the indignation of the 
reader, at the perfidy and baseness of the King's negociators. 
Shakspeare has been guilty of one error, the correction of 
which, however humiliating to the biogirapher of Ralph Neville, 
appears proper in this place, although long since pointed out 
by Mr. Steevens, in his notes on the play itself. 

Shakspeare makes Prince John of Lancaster, the King's son, 
promise the rebellious lords a full redress of all their grievances, 
V and adds, 

" If this may please you, 
Discharge your powers unto their several counties, 
As we will ours ; and here, between the armies, 
Let's drink together friendly, and embrace ; 

4 



FIRST EARL OF WESTMORLAND. 

That all their eyes may bear those tokens home, 
Of our restored love and amity." 

It was not the Prince who made this insidious proposal. But 
the Earl of Westmorland, who, finding that the force of the 
conspirators far exceeded that under the command of the King's 
generals, adopted this treacherous line of conduct, to defeat the 
purposes of the enemy, and obtain possession of the persons of 
their leaders. Holinshed, who derives the whole of this infor- 
mation from Walsingham, allows that " others write somewha,t 
otherwise of this matter, afi&rming that the Earle of Westmorland, 
indeed, and the Lord Rafe Eeuers, procured the Archbishop 
and Earle Marshall, to come to a communication with them, 
upon a ground iust in the midwaie betwixt both the armies, 
where the Earle of Westmorland, in talke, declared to them 
how perilous an enterprise they. had taken, in hand: &c. — here- 
vpon, as well the Archbishop as the Earle Marshall submitted 
themselues vnto the King, and to his sonne, the Lord John, that 
was there present, and returned not to their armie ; wherevpon 
their troops scaled and fled." This is, indeed, a detail more 
honourable to the character of the Earl of Westmorland, but we 
fear that adopted by Shakspeare rests on equally good founda- 
tion ; for, whichever of the two accounts be the correct one, it 
is very certain, that the most ample and unqualified promises of 
pardon and redress were proflFered and accepted, not one 
of which was held sacred. Archbishop Scrope and his followers 
were denounced as traitors, and hurried to execution amidst 
the tears and lamentations of the people, by whom the prelate 
was universally beloved, and who looked upon him, ever after, 
as little less than a martyr. 

The Earl of Westmorland was not ill-rewarded by the King 
for his attachment and good services. In the first year of his 
reign he gave him the county and honour of Richmond, a most 

5 



RALPH NEVILLE, 

desirable acquirement, says the late historian of Yorkshire, 
independently of its great value, to a family who had hitherto 
enjoyed the rank of first feudatories only under the Earls. 

In the second of Henry IV. he acted as a commissioner, to 
treat concerning the marriage between Lewis, the eldest son of 
Rupert, King of Romans, and Blanche, eldest daughter to King 
Henry. The next year he was made governor of Roxburgh 
eastle, for ten years ; and in the. sixth of the same King, was 
again entrusted to negociate a truce with the King of Scotland, 
a commission that was frequently renewed, and in which the 
Earl appears always to have been named, so late even as the 
first of Henry the Sixth. 

The accession of Henry the Fifth to the throne of his father- 
was the signal for fresh exertions on the part of the Earl of 
Westmorland. He accompanied that Prince into France ; was 
actively engaged with him at the siege of Caen, in Normandy ; 
and was one of the heroic conquerors at the battle of Agin- 
court. The exclamation ascribed to him on this memorable 
occasion, by Shakspeare, 

" O that we now had here 
But one ten thousand of those men in England, 
That do no work to-day !" 

rests on no better foundation than Holinshed's assertion, that 
" one of the hoste" uttered such a wish to another who stood 
next him ; and Ralph Neville was not a very likely person to 
manifest symptoms of faint-heartedness, or to be mistaken 
for an obscure individual, whose name was unworthy of more 
particular record. 

The Earl was twice married : Camden remarks that his 
descendants, by his first wife, Margaret, daughter of Hugh, 
Earl of Stafford, enjoyed the title of Earls of Westmorland, till 



FIRST EARL OF WESTMORLAND. 

Charles, forming a conspiracy as vain as wicked, (cum impotent! 
animo et scelerata conspiratione) against Queen Elizabeth, and 
being obliged to fly his country, disgraced that noble family, 
stained his own glories, and ended his life, in wretched exile, in 
the Netherlands. By his second wife, Joane, daughter of John 
of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, he had such a numerous issue, that 
her descendants were, at one and the same time. Earl of Salis- 
bury, Earl of Warwick, Earl of Kent, Marquis Montacute, 
Baron Latimer, and Baron^ Abergavenny. 

According to the usage of those times, the Earl of Westmor- 
land became the founder of a religious house. He endowdd the 
collegiate church of Staindrope, in the county and bishoprick of 
Durham, for a master, six priests, six clerks, six esquires, 
or decayed gentlemen, and six poor men. The endowment, 
according to Speed, was valued annually at an hundred and 
twenty-six pounds, five shillings, and tenpence. 

Leland, whose excellent and invaluable Itinerary we are 
always pleased to refer to, says, " Rafe Neville, the first Erl 
of Westmerland, of that name, is buried yn a right stately 
tumbe of alabaster, in the quire of Stanthorp college, and 
Margajete, his first wife, on the lift bond of hym : and on the 
right bond lyith the image of Johan his 2, wife, but she is 
buried at Lincoln, by her mother Caterine Swinesford, Duches 
of Lancaster." It is this stately tumbe that now forms so 
exquisite an embellishment to our Monumental Remains, 
and which was removed, some thirty or forty years since, 
from the centre of the chancel of Staindrop church, to its 
present situation in the western end of the south side-aisle, 
where it is placed with the head against the wall, and 
so injudiciously near it, as barely to leave a passage between 
the wall and the monument. It is an altar tomb, entirely 
of alabaster, with rich niches at the sides; the whole 
beautifully designed, and executed with the greatest taste. 

7 



RALPH NEVILLE, 

The Earl rests between his two wives, clad in plated armour, 
having a pointed helmet, with a flowered wreath, and a mail 
gorget. Under his head is a helmet, surmounted with a bull's 
head, the crest of the family, and at his feet a lion couchant, 
behind which are two priests at desks. On the frontlet of the 
Earl's helmet, are the letters (1^0, and from the sides a strap or 
collar, charged with 00. ; on his breast ts the saltire, the 
armorial bearing of the Nevilles. The decorations of his helmet 
and gauntlets, as well as the seams and lacing of every part of 
the armour, are richly ornamented ; nor can any thing be more 
minute and beautiful than the whole figure. The faces of the 
females closely resemble each other, and both statues are 
designed in the best taste of the time. They are similarly 
habited in a mantle, kirtle, and surcoat, richly edged and faced ; 
the hair is braided, and adorned with quatre foils, and enclosed 
within a covering, richly wrought ; round their necks are collars 
of 00, fastened with a triangular ring, and a medal appendant ; 
and on each of their heads is a coronet, studded with precious 
stones ; at their feet are two dogs, collared, peeping out from 
under their robes ; and beneath all, two monks kneeling be- 
fore books placed on desks. The arms of both the principal 
figures are broken off, and the terminations, representing the 
kneeling priests, are sadly defaced. The Canopy work of the 
small shrines on each side has also suffered great dilapidation; 
partly, perhaps, from the removal of the tomb, and partly in 
consequence of its present unprotected situation. Although 
not a single canopy now remains entire, yet a very careful 
examination of the whole has enabled us to make out the 
original design, with great precision; and, in order to furnish 
some idea of the pristine beauty and magnificence of this costly 
monument, the two nearest have been restored, whilst, in every 
other particular, the representation in the annexed plate may be 
depended on, as a most faithful portrait of the original. 

8 



EARL OF WESTMORLAND. 

THE TWO WIVES OF RALPH NEVILLE, EARL 
OF WESTMORLAND. 

The first wife of the Earl of Westmorland was Margaret 
StaflFord, eldest daughter of Hugh, Earl of Stafford, by Philippa, 
daughter of Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. Of the dates 
of her birth and marriage no records appear now to exist, al- 
though, in consequence of her being within the third and fourth 
degrees of consanguinity with her intended husband, it Was 
necessary to procure a dispensation from the Pope, previously 
to the celebration of their nuptials. This was a matter of no great 
difficulty with persons so powerful ; and Pope Urban the Fifth, 
to whom the application was made, readily granted the re- 
quired permission. The children of this marriage were, 

1 . John, who died during the life of his father^ leaving a son 
Ralph, who afterwards succeeded his grandfather as Earl of 
.Westmorland. 

2. Ralph, married to Mary, daughter and coheir to Sir Robert 
Ferrers, of Oversley, Warwickshire. 

3. Maud, married to Peter, Lord Mauley. 

4. Alice, first married to Sir Thomas Gray> of Heton ; 
secondly, to Sir Gilbert de Lancaster. 

5. Philippa, married to Thomas, Lord Dacres, of Gillesland. 

6. Margaret, married to Richard, Lord Scrope, of Bolton* 

7. Anne, married to Sir Gilbert de Umfraville* Knight. 

8. Margery^ Abbess of Berking. 

9. Elizabeth, a nun of the order of St, Clare, at the Minories, 
in London. 

Dugdale has committed a strange error in stating, that 
the Countess died on the 9th of June 1370, since, in his 
account of the Earls of Stafford, he enumerates a legacy of 
Hugh Earl of Stafford, " to Margaret de Nevil, his daughter^ 

9 



RALPH NEVILLE, 

a large gold ring, with a great diamond set therein :" this 
was given by a codicil bearing date 1386, in which year 
her father died at Rhodes. 

Joanna de Beaufort, second wife of Ralph Neville, was 
the only daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by 
Catharine Swyneford, whom he afterwards made his third wife, 
and widow to Robert Ferrers, son of Robert Ferrers, Lord of 
Wem, Salop, and Oversley, Warwick ; by whom she had issue 
two daughters, Elizabeth, wife of John, Baron of Greystock, 
and Mary married, as we have just seen, to Ralph, second son 
of the Earl of Westmorland by his first wife. 

By her second husband, Ralph Neville, she had a very 
numerous offspring ; 

1. Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury. 

2. William, Lord Faulconberg. 

3. George, Lord Latimer. 

4. Edward, Lord Abergaveny. 

5. Robert, Bishop of Durham. 

6. Cuthbert Neville. 

7. Henry Neville. 

8. Thomas Neville. 

The last three died without issue. 

9. Catherine, wife of John Mowbray, second Duke of 
Norfolk, and afterwards married to Sir John Woodvile, son 
of Richard,- Earl Rivers. 

10. Eleanor, wife, first, of Richard, Lord Spencer, and 
secondly, of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. 

11. Anne, wife, firsts of Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham, 
and afterwards of Walter Blount, Lord Mountjoy. 

12. Jane, a nun. 

13. Cicely, married to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York. 
Joanna, Countess of Westmorland, died on the thirteenth 

of November 1440, and was buried in the cathedral church 

10 



EARL OF WESTMORLAND. 

of Lincoln, on the south side of the choir, where an altar 
monument of grey marble was erected to her memory, con- 
tiguous to the tomb of her mother: round the Verge of the 
Countess's monument, the following monkish lines were 
engraved on a fillet of brass. 

Jptlfa 'EancastrfsBuds, incltta Sbponsa ^ojbanna 

^estmttlanln fximi snttfacet ftit tomttfs. 
Besine, strfiba, %m% btrtutes promere, nulla 

^Kox baUat nurtta bix reboate sua; 
Sbttrpe, liMore, fiJje, fama, spe, pw«, profe, 

^ttubus et bita polluit gmmo sua. 
iSatio tota Mtt pro tnorte, 39eus tulit tpsatn 

Jn iStittf fe»to ®. quateriW. ^uater X. 

11 







Dra^-mft Engraved "by Edw^ploi-e, 

MaSTWM.EKilf' WW Am<SMJlM.&JLiii ,?5'='F IB ABitt, . ©» BiroWcSaASS 

in THE CHIJECH OE DOXTGIASS. 






Ttihhsh£d.July,J,Jfi24, Try Sa;r,iiru^_ TripTuiok ^X,;.pard,S)hshury Sqij^xr6.L:TuihfL. 



ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, 

FIFTH EARL OF DOUGLAS. 

Ob. 1438. 
monument at dotjglas. 

The monument of this nobleman stands on the north side of the 
chapel attached to the now ruined church of Douglas, and 
appropriated as the place of sepulture for the Douglas family. 
It is entirely composed of stone ; and although now sadly de- 
faced, retains traces of having been once profusely ornamented, 
and richly gilt and painted. The Effigy is habited in robes of 
state ; on the head is a coronet. The left hand sustains what 
was probably designed for a batoon of office, whilst the right 
holds together the cordon by which the mantle is fastened. A 
broad and highly-embellished belt encircles the waist. The 
face, in which the lines of countenance are very strongly mark- 
ed, is perfect, with the exception of some portion of the nose. 
Round the margin of the slab on which the effigy reposes, are 
the remains of an inscription, which, as it is now almost en- 
tirely obliterated, we are glad to retrieve from an antient and 
authentic transcript. It is as follows ; 

HIC • lACET . DOMINVS • ARCHBALDVS • DOVGLAS • DVX 
TVRONIE • ' COMES • DE • DOVGLAS • ET • LONGEVILLE 
DOMINVS • GALLOVIDIE • ET • VVIOTON • ET • ANNANDIE 
LOCVM . TENENS • REGIS • SCOTIE • OBIIT • XXVl" 
DIE • MENSIS • IVNIl • ANNO • DOMINI • MILLESIMO 
QVADRINGENTESIMO • TRIGESIMO • OCTAVO • 

1 



ARCHIBALD, 

The small shield over the figure, in the recess of the arch, is 
charged with the arms of Douglas, and the label above retains 
a few detached letters of an inscription, probably some motto, 
or perhaps a pious quotation from the scriptures, appropriate 
to the place and subject. 

Although this and the other very interesting monuments in 
this chapel have suflPered, and are still suffering, much from 
neglect, it is evident that we cannot attribute their present di- 
lapidated state to this cause alone ; nor, indeed, to the slow 
yet certain progress of time, and its attendant decay. There 
can be no question but, at some former period, these magnifi- 
cent tombs have been exposed to wanton and intentional in- 
jury ; and however the ddmirers of art and the lovers of anti- 
quity must deplore the barbarous violence, which has occa- 
sioned so much and so irrepfarable dilapidatictti, it is hoped that 
these frequent inst-ancesof destruction or decay, will>prove the 
use and the^ necessity of some such undertaking as the present; 
a work which will, we trust, intsome measure arrest the hand of 
time, and for the future, at least, place these splendid memo- 
rials of departed valour and nobility far . beyond . the reach of 
the destroyer.' In the monument of Lord Douglas now given, 
the quatrefoil termination of the summit, the foliage, over the 
arch, and one of the figures, and the canopies on the side of the 
tomb, have been torn from their original places : the last have 
entirely disappeared, but some fragments which lie loose and 
disregarded in the chapel, and which, on application, were 
found to belong to the former, have enabled us to restore them 
in the plate ; a restoration which, in a very short time, would 
probably have been impossible. 

Archibald, Fifth Earl of Douglas, was the eldest son of Archi- 
bald Earl of Douglas, who for his valour and good service per- 
formed for Charles the Seventh of France, received from that 
monarch the Dutchy of Turenne, a title conferred upon him 
about 1423, and continued to his heirs for ever. This noble- 

2 



FIFTH EARL OF DOUGLAS. 

man, together with, his son-in-law, John Stuart Earl of Buchan, 
lost hislife at the battle of Vernoil ; they were both buried with 
much pomp and solemnity in St. Gratian's church, at Tourney, 
in 1424. . . 

Archibald, when a young man and known by the title of 
Earl of Wigton, accompanied his brother-in-law, the Earl of 
Buchan, into France, whither they went with an army of seven 
thousand men, to aid the Dauphin, then contending against the 
King of England and the Duke of Burgundy. It was here that 
they assisted in repelling the Duke of Clarence, brother to the 
English ;Kihg, in liis attack upon a small village called Bauge, 
where the English were repulsed with great loss ; their com- 
mander, together with two hundred persons of rank and estima- 
tion, being slain. Hume, of Godscroft, says, quaintly enough, 
on this exploit : That " the Scots were glad to have occasion 
to shew the French what they could doe, and to confute their 
whisperings and surmises, wherein they reproached them as fit 
onely to consume victuals : and the English were moved with 
great indignation, that they should bee thus perpetually troubled 
by the Scots, not onely at home, but also ?ibrode, beyond the 
sea, in a fortaine countrey." ; . /3gi,/^!t' - ' 

In 1422, the Earl of Wigton returned to Scotland for more 
recruits, but was unable to rejtm his father, then holding the 
chief command in France, in consequence of iiUrhealth ; and not 
long after^ he succeeded to the title of Douglas, by the death of 
the fourth Earl, at Vernoil. : j . t 

In 1424, he was sent ambassador to England, together with 
Henry, Bishop of Aberdeen,, and Sir William Hay of Errol, to 
treat about the yansbm of King: James the> First; and, having 
accomplished the object of their mission, returned to Scotland 
with their royal master in that year. ; j 

In the beginning of the reign of James the Second, if we 
may believe Hiime, the historian of the family, the Earl of 



ARCHIBALD, 

Douglas, disgusted with the measures of Creighton and 
Levingston, retired from public life, and contented himself with 
ruling his own vassals, and preserving the dignity and privi' 
leges of his family. To an application made by Levingston, 
who desired his countenance and co-operation, when he medi- 
tated a rupture with his colleague, he returned the following 
spirited reply ; that he considered the governor and the chan^ 
cellor as alike false, covetous, and ambitious ; that their conten- 
tions being neither honourable, nor for the benefit of their 
country, but for their own individual quarrels and private ad- 
vantage, it was of little consequence which of them over- 
came: if indeed, said he, both of you should perish, our coun- 
try would reap the benefit ; nor can there be a more pleasant 
sight for an honest man and a patriot, than to see such a cou- 
ple of fencers yoked together. 

It is probable that these sentiments would have provoked 
some fatal measures dictated by disappointment and revenge, 
had not the death of the Earl of Douglas speedily taken place. 
He was shortly after seized with a fever which terminated his life 
at Rastelrigge in 1438 ; and history informs us, that the here- 
ditary hatred of Levingston and Creighton was but too success- 
fully exerted againgt the persons of his children ; his two sons, 
William and David, being treacherously murdered in the castle 
of Edinburgh, and in the presence of the king, who, although 
not privy to the assassination, and abhorring the foul deed, was 
unable to prevent it. 

Archibald Douglas was twice married. First to the Lady 
Matilda Lindsay, daughter of the Earl of Crawfurd, who died 
without issue. His second wife was the Lady Eupheme Gra-' 
ham, daughter of the Earl of Strathern, by whom he had two 
sons and a daughter; the latter. Lady Margaret, who was 
called " the fair maid of Galloway," married, first, her cousin 
William, and, secondly, James, both Earls of Douglas, but had 

4 



FIFTH EARL OF DOUGLAS. 

no issue by either. She, for the third time, became the wife of 
John Earlof Athol, to whom she bore two daughters, one mar- 
ried tothe Earl of Errol, the second to the Lord Gray. 

We shall conclude this article with an extract from Hume's 
" History of the House of Douglas." It contains a romantic 
and perhaps unparalleled instance of confidence and ge- 
nerosity in the parties of whom the anecdote is related, and 
cannot be better told than in the simple yet vigorous language 
of the origiiiial writer. 

" This thing onely I can account worthy of reproofe in the 
Earl of Douglas, that he suffered Annandale to overcome the 
adjacent countreyes, and did not hinder them from wronging 
the innocent people : hee should not have thought that it did 
not belong to him to hinder them, because he was no magis- 
trate. This if he had done, and kept justice within himself, it 
would have gotten him both favour and honour, and might have 
brought contempt upon the governours (Levingston and Creigh- 
ton) that could not keep peace in a more tractable and peace- 
able countrey, nor among themselves : for how excellent a thing 
is it, by good means to seeke honour. It would have taken 
away the occasion of the calumnies of his enemies, who yet did 
much worse themselves. He was otherw^e a valiant, wise 
man, a lover of his countrey, and of a free, plain, good and ge- 
nerous nature : his generous disposition appeareth in his brave 
demeanour towards the Lord Kennedie. There being some- 
thing wherein the Lord Kennedie had wronged and offended 
him, he conceived such high indignation thereat, tl^at hee pub- 
lished his desire of revenge to be such, that whosoever would 
bring the Lord Kennedie's head, should have the lands of 
Stuarton. This offer proceeded from so powerful! a man, and 
knowne to bee a man that would keepe his promise, the Lord 
Kennedie hearing of it, (fearing hee could hardly long escape 
his hands,) resolved, by way of prevention, to be himselfe the 
presenter of his owne head unto him ; and accordingly, (keeping 

5 



ARCHIBALD, FIFTH EARL OF DOUGLAS. 

his owne intention close to himselfe,) he came privately to Wig- 
ton ; where, finding the Earle Douglas at his devotion in Saint 
Ninnian's church, (a place famous, in those dayes, for the fre- 
quent resort of pilgrimes thither,) immediately after divine ser- 
vice, offered his head to the Earle, as one who had deserved the 
promised reward, and did crave it. The Earle seing the reso- 
lution and confident assurance of the man, who had put him- 
selfe in his power and mercy, forgave him all former faults, 
made him his friend, and withall gave him the reward he had 
promised, disponing to him and his heires the lands of Stuar- 
ton, which his successiours, the Earles of Cassils, doe peace- 
ably enjoy to this day." 

6 





6 



ft 



< 



'^■ 






e 



e ft^ 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

EARL OF WARWICK. 

1381 1439. 

MONUMENT AT WARWICK. 

Richard Beauchamp, son of Thomas Earl of Warwick, by 
Margaret, daughter of William Lord Ferrers of Groby, was 
born at Salwarpe in Worcestershire, on the twenty-eighth day 
of .January, 1381. His godfathers were. King Richard tlie 
Second, and the then Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 
Richard Scrope, afterwards Archbishop of York. At the Coro- 
nation of King Henry the Fourth, he was created a Knight of 
the Bath, being at that time only nineteen years of age ; and in . 
the fifth year of that king's reign, at the Coronation of Queen 
Jane, the Earl, according to the chivalrous gallantry of those 
days, declared himself her Majesty's champion against all 
opponents, and acquitted himself with so great credit, that 
he was retained to serve the King for one year, with a retinue 
of one hundred men at arms, and three hundred archers : of the 
rank and quality of his followers, some idea may be formed, 
from the circumstance of John Lord Audley occurring among 
the number. In the fourth year of King Henry, he performed 
homage, and had livery of his lands; and, shortly after, march- 
ing with the forces appointed to suppress the rebellion of Owen 
Glendour, displayed the greatest personal courage, taking the 
banner of the enemy, and compelling his opponent to seek 
safety in flight. About the same time he bore an active part in 

1 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

the defeat of Sir Henry Percy at the famous battle of Shrewsbury, 
and soon after was made a Knight of the Garter. In the ninth 
of Henry IV. the Earl of Warwick obtained licence to visit the 
Holy Land, in pursuance of a vow he had made to perform his 
devotions and tender the customary offerings at the sepulchre 
of our Saviour. Passing from England into France, he was 
every where received with the greatest respect, and entertained 
with peculiar distinction by the French monarch, who, accord- 
ing to John Rous's MS. in the Cotton library, " on the Whit- 
sonday, in reuerence of the holy feast, was crowned, and made 
Earle Richard to sitt at his table, where he so manerly behaued 
himselfe in langage and norture, that the kinge and his lords 
with all othir people, gaue him greet lawde, and at his depart- 
ing the kinge assigned him an heraud, to giue his attendance 
and conducte him saufely through all his reame." It may be 
remarked, that the day of Pentecost was a feast of the highest 
importance in the annals of chivalry : it was the day on which 
persons of the royal blood, the sons and the brothers of kings, 
received the honour of knighthood. Proceeding towards Rome, 
the Earl was met by the herald of Sir Pandulph Malacet or 
Malet, who challenged him to perform certain feats at arms on 
St. George's day at Verona, a challenge which was very readily 
accepted^ although it was near proving fatal to the chalfengex-; 
for having broken their lances in jousting, the combatants fell to 
it, as by agreement, with axes, and in this encounter. Sir Pan- 
dulph received a severe wound on the shoulder, and would 
inevitably have been slain, but for the interposition of the 
arbiter, under whose superintendance the joustings took place, 
who proclaimed Peace, and thus, according to the laws of arms, 
put an end to the conflict. During his sojourn at Jerusalem, 
he had the high privilege granted him by the PatTriarch's; de- 
puty, to hold conference with the impugners of the faith, and 
was, in consequence, royally feasted by the Soldan's lieutenant, 

2 



EARL OF WARWICK. 

who invited him out of respect to the memory of his illustrious 
ancestor, the famous Guy of Warwick, with whose story he was 
thoroughly acquainted, being a man skilled in languages, and 
otherwise well versed in the literature of the age. The name of 
this lieutenant was Sir Baldredam, who, before they parted, 
made a singular communication to the earl, nanieiy,' that al- 
though he durst not confess it, he was in his heart converted 
to the Catholic religion ; and he afterwards proved the sincerity 
of his assertion by rehearsing the articles of their faith. 

From Jerusalem the Earl returned to Venice, and thence, 
making the tour of Europe for nearly three years, lost no oppor- 
tunity of displaying his military acomplishments, by taking 
part in divers tournaments at the several courts he visited in his 
travels. ..^ - - f 

Having sufficiently satisfied his curiosity and added greatly 
to his fame, he came back into England; where he was imme- 
diately retained with Henry, Prince of Wales; (afterwards 
Henry V.). covenanting, by indenture dated the second of Oc- 
tober, 12 Hen. IV., to serve him in times of peace and war, as 
well in the realm of England, as upon, and beyond, the seas, at 
a wage of two hundred and fifty marcs per annum, to be paid 
out of the prince's exchequer at Caermarthen, on the two feasts 
of Easter and St. Michael, by even portions ; and the agreement 
further prOvideS) that " whensoever he should be in that prince's 
court, to have four esquires and six yeomen with Mm, and diet 
for them all ; and that the prince in slervice of #ar should have 
the third part of what he got in battle, and the third of the 
thirds of what his men at arms should gain : and' ill case he took 
any great commander, fort, 01* castle, the prince likewise to 
have them, giving him reasonable satisfaction." This agree- 
ment is very euriiousi in as much as it not only informs us of the 
• amount of the salary paid by a sovereign for the services of 
one of his nobles of the highest rarik, but gives an accurate 

3 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

account of the division of spoil captured by a knight and his 
retainers. 

At the Coronation of King Henry the Fifth, the Earl of War- 
wick was constituted High Steward of England, and soon after 
he was appointed a commissioner to treat with France, touch- 
ing a firm peace between that country and England ; to secure 
which he was empowered to negociate for a match between 
King Henry, and Catharine, daughter of the French monarch. 
He had before been associated with the Bishop of Durham, to 
treat with the commissioners of the King of Scotland concern- 
ing peace with that nation also, and was subsequently sent, 
with several of the most distinguished English ecclesiastics, to 
assist at the Council of Constance. In the reign of Henry V. he 
had the important charge of the town of Calais committed to his 
care, and was made governor of the marches of Picardy ; and 
two years after, being with the arfny under the Duke of Cla- 
rence, was the first Englishman who entered Caen, and planted 
the standard of his country on the walls of that city, for which, 
and his other signal services, he was soon after created Earl of 
Aumarle. 

The next public transaction of importance in which we find 
the Earl engaged, was a contest with a French detachment un- 
der the Earls of Vendosme and Limoisin, who were sent by 
the Dauphin to obstruct him in his progress, when commis- 
sioned by King Henry V. to treat for the marriage of that 
Prince with the Lady Catharine, daughter of the King of 
France. The French force, upon this occasion, amounted to 
five thousand men, the Earl of Warwick being attended with 
one thousand only ; but the victory was so decisive, that both 
the commanders of the enemy were slain, one fighting hand to 
hand with the Earl, and above two thousand of their followers 
perished or were taken prisoners. The issue of Lord War- , 
wick's embassy is well known : the King espoused the French 

4 



EARL OF WARWICK. 

Princess, and, by a treaty entered into at that negociation, was 
to enjoy the realm of France entirely, after the death of the 
then King, An additional instance of Henry's personal regard 
for the Earl, and the high estimation in which he held his abili- 
ties and integrity, appear in his will, by which he left him 
governor of his infant son until he should arrive at his sixteenth 
year ; and the parliament ratifying the King's choice, he received 
the appointment. 

In the first of Henry the Sixth, he was again retained to 
serve as captain of Calais, and raised the siege of that town 
against Philip, Duke of Burgundy, whom he pursued with 
great slaughter, laying waste to the duke's territory, or, as the 
old chronicle has it, he " sore noyed the contrey with fyre 
and swerd." 

Rymer has preserved in his Fcedera (tom. x., p. 399.) the in- 
strument appointing the Earl of Warwick instructor to Henry 
the Sixth. It sets forth, that the king, by the advice of his un- 
cles the Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester, and considering his 
fidelity, wisdom, circumspection, and diligence, gives him full 
power to provide for the security of his person, as well as to in- 
struct him in gdod morals, learning different languages, the vari- 
ous branches of education, and all other polite accomplishments, 
in short, all matters worth knowing and fit for the instruction of 
a prince. He was moreover to exhort him truly to serve God, 
follow virtue and abhor vice, by every reasonable way and 
method adapted to his capacity and years, and to do whatever 
is conducive to his state, benefit, and honour : nor should it be 
omitted, that in case of any contumacy on the part of the royal 
pupil, the noble tutor was invested with full power to coerce 
and chastise him. 

On the death of the Duke of Bedford, then regent of France, 
the Earl of Warwick was discharged from his care of the King's 
person, and constituted Lieutenant freneral of the entire realm 

5 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

of France and of the dutchy of Normandy. There is an anec- 
dote, connected with his assumption of this new dignity, that 
must be recorded, as it shews the vast importance attached to 
the rites of sepulture, and proves that the superstition prevalent 
in the days of Homer, and so forcibly depicted by Virgil; in the 
descent of ^neas into hell, was not altogether forgotten in the 
days of which we are now treating : 

" Hsec omnis, quam cernis, inops, inhumataque turba est : — 
Nee ripas datur horrendas, nee rauca fluenta 
Transportare prius,' quam sedibus ossa quierunt. 
Centum errant annos, volitantque hsec littora circum : 
Turn demum admissi stagna exoptata revisunt." — (^Mth. vi. 325 — 330.) 

And the shade of Patroclus intreats the boon of an honour- 
able interment from Achilles, whom he reproaches with for- 
getting their former intinaacy, from neglecting this necessary rite ; 

Ov jA-sit ft,iv Qiiovrof axi)«>;, a^^» fiavovro;' 

©airls fit ormix^irrd, wv7i,ai aVSao vs^ia-u-r- 

Mv Ijjiu a-Sii airoDiv^i Tifliftsmsi i<TVc , 'AjjiWieJ;. II. T. 70 — 83. 

Nor is the Grecian hero insensible to the claim : he not 
only directs that his remains shall receive present burial, but 
that hereafter, at his own funeral, he may be commemorated 
by a more ample monument : 

- eVetTos Si jtast rov 'Apjasiof 



Eugun S' JiJ/jiXoii TE rtivjjisvai — II. T. 246. 

" Here shewes (says John Rous) how Erie Richard, when he 
with his nauy tooke the salt water, in short space rose a greiu- 
ous tempest, and droue the shipps into diuers coasts, in soe 
much as they all feared to be perished, and the noble Erie 
for-castyhge, let bynde himselfe and his Lady, and Henry his 
Sonne and heire, after Due, of Warwyk, to the mast of the ves- 

6 



EARL OF WARWICK. 

sell, to the intent, that where euer they were found, they might 
haue Un buryed togedres worshipfullys, by the knowledge of his 
coate armor, and other signes upon him ; but yet God pre- 
serued hem all, and soe returned to Englond, and after to 
Normandy." 

The Earl did not enjoy this distinguished post for more than 
four years. He died on the thirty rfirst of April, 1439, (17 
Henry VI.) leaving issue, by both his wives : By Elizabeth his 
first consort, daughter and heiress to Thomas Lord Berkeley, 
three daughters, viz. 

M&rgaret, born in 1405, second wife to John Talbot, Earl of 
Shrewsbury. She died in 1467, and was buried in the church 
of St. Faith, London. 

Eleanor, married first to the Lord Roos, and secondly to Ed- 
mund Beaufort, Marquis of Dorset and Duke of Somerset, who 
was slain at the battle of St. Alban's, 1455. 

Elizabeth, married to George Nevil, Lord Latimer. 
And by his second wife, Isabel daughter of Thomas Le Des- 
penser. Earl of Gloucester, and widow of Richard Beauchamp, 
Elarl of Worcester, who being his first cousin, he was compelled 
to have a special dispensation from the Pope in order to espouse 
her, he had 

Henry, his son and heir. 

Anne, married to Richard Nevile, Earl of Salisbury, slain in 
the battle of Barnet, 1471. 

Thus have we given a brief record of the public transactions, 
or at least of those most worthy of historical notice, in the 
life of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and it will 
be allowed that few of the nobility could exceed him in mili- 
tary renown,- or in devotion to the public interest. Of his pri- 
vate' character it is more difficult; at this remote period, to say 
any thing ; nor indeed can he who passes his career, from the 
first dawn of manhood to the last hour of his existence, in the 

f 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

service of his sovereign, or the battles of his country, have many 
opportunities for displaying the more quiet virtues of domestic 
life; nor would these virtues, however transcendant, form a sub- 
ject sufficiently conspicuous for the notice of the historian. Still, 
however, there are not wanting some traits of character, to be 
deduced from the accounts transmitted to us by the earlier 
writers, which place the noble subject of our present memoir in 
an interesting and amiable point of view. 

The patent, appointing him to have the care of King Henry, 
bears, as we have seen, ample testimony to his probity, his 
morals, and high character for prudenca and good sense : of 
his scholastic attainments there can be no reasonable doubt, in 
as much as he had to superintend the literary attainments of the 
youthful mona5:ch ; and, in addition, his nomination to take part 
in the celebrated Council of Constance, at which were assembled 
the learning and wisdom of all Europe, proves the estimation in 
which his talent for diplomacy was held by those who knew 
him best. 

Of his courtesy and noble deportment we have ample testi- 
mony from one of the most powerful sovereigns of the age. 
When ambassador at the Council of Constance he was received 
with great distinction by the Emperor Sigismund, to whom his 
character and conversation were so agreeable, that, as a token 
of his esteem, he preferred him to bear before him the sword of 
state, and presented him with the Heart of St. George, in oirder 
to carry into England. A greater treasure than the heart of the 
tutelary saint of his country, could scarcely be offered to an 
Englishman, no nation having a stronger passion for reliques, 
or holding a more devout faith in their miraciilous efficacy and 
value : but, understanding that the Emperor himself purposed 
to pay a visit to England in person, the Earl restored the" pre- 
sent to him, with a courteous assurance that the delivery of so 
precious a relique, by the hand of so illustrious a donor, would 

8 



EARL OF WARWICK. 

greatly enhance the importance of the gift : and the Emperor 
" in short space after he come into Englond, and was made 
Knight of the Garter, and ofFred up the holy hert himselfe, 
which is worshipfuUy yet kept at Wyndesore." So says the 
Cotton MS. which continues, " and in his commynge and go-' 
ynge at Caleys, Erie Richard, then being capteyne there, ho- 
nourably receiued him. And the Emperour sayd to the Kynge, 
that noe Prince Christen, for wisdome, norture, and manhoode, 
had such a nothyr knyght as he had of the Erie of Warrewyke, 
adding thereto, that if all courtesye were lost, yet might hit be 
founde ageyne in hym. And soe euer aftyr, by the Emperour's 
auctorite, was called thefadre of curtesy e." 

If M. De St. Palaye had written any thing beyond the history 
of French and Norman chivalry, he would not have omitted all 
mention af the Earl of Warwick, who performed a feat of heroic 
valour, in the capital of France, of which no French writer, on 
subjects connected with deeds of arms, could, or ought to have 
been ignorant. The Earl, soon after he repaired to the govern- 
ment of Calais, resolving to put in practice some new point of 
chivalry, caused three shields to be made, and in each of 
them a lady painted. The first shield represented the fair one 
playing on her harp, and seated at the end of a bedstead ; she 
had a grate of gold on her left sleeve, and her knight, called the 
Green Knight, with a black quarter, who was ready to just with 
any Knight of France twelve courses, having two shields of 
purveyance, and his letter, sealed with his arms, viz. argent a 
manch gules. The second shield had a lady sitting at a covered 
board, working pearls; and on her sleeve a glove of plate 
tacked, her knight being called Chevalier Vert, having his letter 
sealed with these arms, argent two bars gules, who was to 
just fifteen courses. The third shield had a lady sitting in a 
garden weaving a chaplet, and on her sleeve a polein, with a 
rivet: her knight was called Chevalier Attendant, his letter 

9 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

being sealed or and ^ules quarterly, with a. border vert, and his 
challenge to course with sharp spears. These letters being 
sent to the French court, three knights received, and promised 
to accept, the cha;lienges on a day appointed. The French 
knights were. Sir Gerard Herbauraes, calling himself Le Cheva- 
lier Rouge; the second. Sir Hugh Launey, styling himself Ze 
Chevalkr Blanke; and the third, Sir CoUard Fynes. Twelfth- 
day being appointed for the time, and the Park-Hedge of Gynes 
beihg selected for the place of trial, the Earl came into the 
field, with his face covered, a plume of ostrich' feathers upon his 
hielm, and his horse-trappings embroidered with the arms of one 
of his ancestors, the Lord Toney, viz. arg. a manch gules. En- 
countering with the Ghevalier Rouge, at the third course he 
unhorsed him, and returning to his pavilion, with closed vizor, 
and unknown, he sent to the vanquished knight a good courser 
as an acknowledgment of his bravery. The next day he came 
into: the field with* his vizor closed, a chaplet- on his helm-i and 
his horse trapped with the arms of Hanslap, argent two bars 
gulesi EBOountering with the Blank Knight, he smote off bis 
vizor thrioe, pierced his armour, aiid again returned to his tent 
victoiious*,' although unknown. To this knight- he also sent a 
good courser. On the third day the Earl appeared in his own 
character, his face disclosed, his helmet richl^" adorned with a 
chaplet of pearls and precious stones, bearing the arms of Guy 
and' Beauchamp quarterly, with those of Toney and, Hanslap 
on his trappings; On entering the lists he said, " that as he had 
in his- own person performed the service the two days before, 
so, with God's gracej he would the third." Whereupon, encoun- 
tering with Sir CoUard Fynes, at every stroke he bore him 
backward to his horse. The French, astonished at his prowess, 
could rfdt but believe there was foul pliay, and cried alond: that 
he himself was bound to his saddle; upon which the Earl alighted, 
and presently re-mounted. The tourflament being thus ended, 

10 



EARL OF WARWICK. 

the Earl of Warwick returned to his pavilion a third time victo- 
rious ; he then feasted the whole assembly, rewarded his three 
opponents with splendid gifts, and returned to Calais, having 
gained immortal honour. 

The Earl of Warwick's virtues were not, however, confined to 
the court and the field. Had his life been longer spared, and 
the troublesome times that followed not impeded his generous 
designs, the place of his residence would probably have derived 
great advantages from his enterprizing and patriotic spirit. It 
was his intention to have walled the town of Warwick ; and he 
was, perhaps, the first person who meditated a navigable canal : 
"he mynded to have maid passage for bottes frome Tuekes- 
bury to Warwick, for trausportyng of merohaintdise for thad- 
vauncement of Warwick." 

Nor, as Mr, Gough remarks, was he less liberal and; munificent 
in the cause of religion. He founjled the chantrey-chapel at 
Guyscliff, he endowed a college at Elmley, and built the mag- 
nificent chapel at Warwick, for the burial of himself and family. 

The will of the Earl was printed iby the industrious aatiquary, 
Hearne, at the end of the History of Richard II., by a monk of 
Evesham. It is dated Aug. 8, 1435, at Gaversham, in Oxford- 
shire : in it, he directs that his body shall be interred in the col- 
legiate church of our lady at Warwick, in the centre of a chap- 
pell, well, fair, and goodly built, and that until such chapel was 
finished, his body should be laid in a chest of stone before the 
altar, on the right hand of his father's tomb, in the said church 
of Warwick, to which church he gave an image of our Lady of 
pure goldy as an heriot. He further orders, that his executors 
should cause to be made four images of gold, each weighing 
twenty pounds, to be made after his similitude, in his coat of 
arms, holding an anchor in his hands, to be offered for him at 
St. Albans, Canterbury, Bridlington, and Shrewsbury; and 
that a goodly tomb of marble be erected over his first wife's 

11 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

grave, in the abbey of Kingswood. To his second wife, besides 
all the valuables he had with her, and those he had presented 
her with since their marriage, he leaves two dozen silver dishes, 
twelve chargers of silver, twelve sawcers of the same metal, a 
pair of basons silver gilt, four others not gilt, four silver ewers, 
twelve other pieces with his arms enamelled in their bottoms, 
two pots of silver gallons, and six pots of silver ; and, in addi- 
tion to all this plate, he desires that she may have " the great 
paytren that was bought of the Countess of SufFolke, which 
sometimes was the Earles of Salesberys." The residue of his 
vessels of silver and gold, together with " the cup of golde with 
the daunce of men and women," he bequeaths to his son Harry. 
His executors were the Lords Cromwell and Tiptoft, John 
Trockmorton, Richard Curson, Thomas Huggeford, William 
Berkeswell, priest, and Nicholas Rody, his steward. 

We have now to enter upon a description of the magnificent 
tomb, erected as a memorial of the splendor and munificence of 
this illustrious nobleman ; and here Dugdale, the historian of 
Warwickshire, has very fortunately preserved a recapitulation 
of the agreement between the executors of the Earl, and the ar- 
tisans employed in its erection. This document, although of 
considerable length, must not be omitted in the present work, 
since, independently of its connexion with the immediate sub- 
ject of the article before us, it throws very considerable light 
and affords some extremely, important information, on the con- 
struction of ancient monuments in general; nor is it at all impro- 
bable that we shall have frequent occasion to refer to it in the 
course of our undertaking. The original was found among the 
muniments of the bailiff and burgesses of Warwick, and bears 
date June 13., 32 Henry VI. 

" John Essex, marbler, William Austen, founder, and Thomas 
Stevyns, copper-smyth, do covenant with the said executors that 
they shall make, forge, and worke in most finest wise, and of 

12 



HARL of WARWICK. 

the finest latten, one large plate to be dressed, and to lye on the 
overmost stone of the tombe under the image that shall lye on 
the same tombe, and two narrow plates to go round about the 
stone. Also, they shall make in like wise, and like latten, a 
hearse to be dressed and set upon the said stone, over the 
image, to beare a covering to be ordeyned ; the large plate to 
be made of the finest and thickest cullen plate, shall be in 
length viii foot, and in bredth iii foot and one inch. Either of 
the said long plates for writing shall be in bredth to fill justly 
the casements provided therefore : the hearse to be made in the 
comliest wise, justly in length, bredth, thickness, and height 
thereof, and of every part thereof; and in workmanship in all 
places and pieces such, and after an hearse of timber which 
the executors shall make for a pattern ; and in ten panells of 
this hearse of letters (latten) the said workmen shall set, in the 
most finest and fairest wise, ten scutcheons of armes, such as 
the executors will devise. In the two long plates, they shall 
write in' Latine, in fine manner, all such scripture of declara- 
tion as the said executors shall devise, that may be conteined 
arid comprehended in the plates; all the champes about the 
letter to be abated and hatched curiously to set out the letters. 
All the aforesaid large plates, and all the said two plates 
through all the over sides of them, and all the said hearse of 
latten, without and within, they shall repair, and gild with the 
.finest gold, as finely and as well in all places through, as is 
or shall be in any place of the aforesaid image, which one 
Bartholmew, goldsmyth, then had in gilding; all the said 
workmanship, in makings finishing, layings and fastning, to be 
at the charge of the said workmen. And for the same, they 
have in sterling money, cxxv li. 

" Will. Austen, citizen and founder of London, HMartii, 
30 Hen. VI., covenanteth, &c., to cast, work, and perfectly to 
make, of the finest latten to be gilded that may be found, 

13 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

xiv images embossed of lords and ladyes in . divers vestures, 
called weepers, to stand in housings made about the tombe ; 
those images to be made in bredth, length, and thickness, &c., 
to xiv patterns made of timber. . Also„ he shall make xviii lesse 
images of angells, to stand in other housings, as shall be ap- 
pointed by patterns, whereof ix after one side, and ix after 
another. Also, he must make an hearse to stand on the tombe, 
above and about the prineipall image that shall lye in the 
tombe, according to a pattern ; the stuffe and workmanship to 
the repairing to be at the charge of the said Will. Austen. 
And the executors shall pay for every image that shall lye on 
the tombe, of the weepers so made in latten, xiii *. ivd. and 
for every image of angells. so made v*. And, for every pound of 
latten that shall be in the hearse x d. And shall pay and bear the 
costs of the said Austen for setting the said images and herse. 

" The said Will. Austen, xi Feb. 28 Hen. VI., doth covenant 
to cast and make an image of a man armed, of fine latten, gar- 
nished with certain ornaments, viz. with sword and dagger ; 
with a garter ; with a helme and crest under his head, and at 
his feet a bear musled, and a griffon, perfectly made of the 
finest latten, according to patterns ; all which to be brought to 
Warwick, audi layd on the tombe, at the perill of the said 
Austen: (the said executors paying for the image, perfectly 
made and laid, and all the ornanotents, in good order, besides 
the cost of the said workmen to Warwick, and working there to 
lay the image, and besides the cost of the carriages, all which 
are to be born by the said executors, in totall, xl li. 

" Bartholomew Lambespring, Dutchman, and goldsmyth of 
London, 23 Maii, 27 Hen. VI., covenantetb to repaire, whone, 
and puUish, and to make perfect to the gilding, an imiage of latten 
of a man armed, that is in making, to lye over the tombe, and all 
the apparell that belongeth thereunto, as helme, crest, sword, 
&c., and beasts ; the said executors paying therefore xiii li. 

14 



EARL OF WARWICK. 

"The said Baxtkolomew, and Will. Austen, 12 Martii, 31 
Hen. VI., do covenant to puUish and. repare. xxxii ; images of 
latten, lately made by the said Will. Austen for the tombe, viz. 
xviii images of angells, and xiv images of mourners, ready to 
the gilding ; the said executors paying therefore xx li. 

" The said Bartholomew, 6 Julii, 30 Hen. VI., doth covenant 
to make scutcheons of the finest latten, - to be set under xiv 
images of lords and ladyes, v(reepers, about the.tombe ; every 
scutcheon to be made meet in length, bredth, and thickness, to 
the place it shall stand in the marblie according to the patterns. 
The xiv scutcheons, and the armes in them, the said Bartholo- 
mew shall make, repare, grave, gild, enamil, andpuUish as well 
as is possible ; and the same scutcheons shall set up, and pin 
fast, and shall bear the charge of all the stuff thereof, the execu- 
tors paying for every scutcheon xv s. sterling, which in all 
amounteth to x li. xs. 

" The said Bartholomew, 20 Julii, 31 Hen. VI., doth covenant, 
&c., to gild, pullish, and burnish xxxii images, whereof xiv 
mourners, and xviii angells to be set about the tombe, and to 
make the visages arid hands and all other bares of all the said 
images, in most quick and fair wise, and to save the gold* as 
much as may be from and without spoiling, and to find all 
things saving gold that shall be occupied thereabout, and to 
pay him for his other charges and labours, either xl/i. or else so 
much as two honest and skilfull goldsmiths shall say upon the 
view of the work, what the same, besides gold and his labour is 
worth: and the executors are to deliver mdney from time to 
time, as the work goeth forward: whereof they pay, li ^i; 

viii s. iv d^ 

"The said Bartholomew, 3 Martij, 32 Hen. VI., doth cove- 
nant to make clean, to .gild, to burnish^ and pullish the great 
image of latten, which shall lye upon the tombie,;with thehehne 
and crest, the bear and the griffon, and all other the ornaments 

16 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

of lattea ; and the said Bartholomew shall finde all manner of 
stuffe for the doing thereof, saving gold, and all workmanship 
at his charges, the said executors providing gold, and giving to 
the said Bartholomew such sum and sums of money for his 
charges and workmanship, as two honest and skilful goldsmyths, 
viewing the work, shall adjudge, whereof some of the money 
to be payd for the borde of the workmen, as the work shall go 
forward : whereof they pay xcvlL iis. viiic?- 

" John Bourde, of CorfF castle in the county of Dorset, 
marbler, 16 Mali, 35 Hen. VI., doth covenant to make a tombe 
of marble, to be set on the said Earle's grave ; the said tombe to 
made well, cleane and sufficiently, of a good and fine marble, 
as well coloured as may be had in England. The uppermost 
stone of the tombe and the base thereof to contain in length ix 
foot of the standard, in bredth iv foot, and in thickness vij 
inches : the course of the tombe to be of good and due propor- 
tion, to answer the length and bredth of the uppermost stone ; 
and a pace to be made round about the , tombe, of like good 
marble, to stand on the ground ; which pace shall contain, 
in thickness, vi inches, and in bredth xviij inches. The tombe 
to bear in height from the pace iv foot and a half. And in and 
about the same tombe, to make xiv principall housings, and un- 
der every principall housing a goodly quarter for a scutcheon of 
copper and gilt, to be set in : and to do all the work and work- 
manship about the same tombe to the entail, according to a por- 
traicture delivered him ; and the carriages and. bringing to War- 
wick, and there to set the same up where it shall stand : the 
entailing to be at the charge of the executors. After which 
entailing, the said marbler shall puUish and dense the said 
tombe in workmanlike sort : and for all the said marble, car- 
riage, and work, he shall have in sterling money, xlv li. 

" The said marbler covenanteth to provide, of good and well- 
coloured marble, so many stones as will pave the chapell where 

16 



EARL OF WARWICK. 

the tombe standeth, every stone containing in thiekness two 
inches, and in convenient bredth, and to bring the same to 
Warwick and lay it : and for the stuff, workmanship and car- 
riage of every hundred of those stones, he shall have xl s. which 
in the total comes to iv U. xiii s. iv d. 

" John Prtldde, of Westminster, glasier, 23 Junij, 25 Hen. 
VL, dovenanteth, &c., to glase all the windows in the new 
chapell in Warwick, ^jvith glasse beyond the seas, and with no 
glasse of England ; and that in the finest wise, with the best, 
cleanest, and strongest glasse of beyond the sea, that may be 
had in England, and of the finest colours, of blew, yellow, red, 
purpure, sanguine, and violet, and of all other colours that shall 
be most necessary, and best to make rich and embellish the 
matters, images, and stories that shall be delivered and ap- 
pointed by the said executors by patterns in paper, afterwards 
to be newly traced and pictured by another painter in rich co- 
lour, at the charges of the said glasier. All which proportion the 
said John Prudde must make perfectly to fine, glase, eneylin it, 
and finely and strongly set it in lead and souder, as well as any 
glasse is in England. Of white glasse, green glasse, black 
glasse, he shall put in as little as shall be needfuU for the shew- 
ing and setting forth of the matters, images and storyes. And 
the said glasier shall take charge of the same glasse, wrought, 
and to be brought to Warwick, and set up there, in the win- 
dows of the said chapell, the executors paying to the said gla- 
sier for evety foot of glasse ii*. and so for the whole xci /«. 
is. xd. 

"Richard Bird and John Haynes, citizens and carpenters of 
London, 12 Feb., 28 Hen. VL, do covenant to make and set up 
in the chappell where the Earl is buried, or where the tombe 
standeth, a pair of desks of timber, poppies^ seats, sills, planks, 
reredoses of timber, with patands of timber, and a crest of fine 
entail, with a bowtel roving on the crest. And also, the car- 

17 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

penters do covenant to make and set up, finely, and workmanly, 
a parclose of timber, about an organloft ordained to stand dver 
the west dore of the said chapell, according to patterns : all 
these things to be made, set up, fastned> joyned, and ordered in 
as good sort as those in the quire of S. Marie's church in War- 
wick ; the executors finding all manner of timber and carriages ; 
and giving and paying to the said carpenters, for workman- 
ship, xl li. 

" John Brentwood, citizen and steyner of London, 12 Feb., 
28 Hen. VI., doth covenant to paint fine, and curiously to make 
at Warwick, on the west wall of the new chapell there, the 
dome of our Lord God Jesus, and all manner of devises and 
imagery thereto belonging, of fair and lightly proportion, as the 
place shall serve for, with the finest colours, and fine gold : and 
the said Brentwood shall find all manner of stufie thereto at 
his charge, the said executors paying therefore, xiii 11. vj s. 
viij d. 

"Kristian Coleburne, peinter, dwelling in London, 13 Junii, 
32 Hen. VI., covenanteth, &c., to paint in most fine, fairest, and 
curious wise, four images of stone, ordained for the new chapell 
in Warwick, whereof two principall images, the one of our 
Lady, the other of S. Gabraell the angell ; and two lesse images, 
one of S. Anne, and another of S. George: these four to be 
painted, with the finest oyle colours, in the richest, finest, and 
freshest clothings that may be made, of fine gold, asure, of fine 
purpure, of fine white, and other finest colours necessary, gar- 
nished, bordered, and pondered in the finest and curiousest 
wise : all the cost and workmanship of painting to be at the 
charge of the said Kristian, the executors paying for the same 
xij h. 

By the accounts of Will. Berkeswell, one of the executors, 
it appears that the structure of the Beauchamp chapel and mo- 
nument commenced in 21 Hen. VI., but was not totally finished 

18 



EARL OF WARWICK, 

till 3 Edw. lY., full twenty-one years, axid that the total cost in the 
work of masons, quarriers, smiths, plummers, carpenters, and 
other inferior labourers, added to the sums paid to the principal 
artists, aCcording to the covenant just recited, amounted to 
two thousand four hundred and" eighty one pounds, four shil- 
lings, and seven-pence halfpenny. 

The monument of Richard. Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, 
consists of an altar-tomb of grey marble, in the finest preserva- 
tion. Within canopies admirably wrought, are whole length 
sculptures of fourteen of the immediate relatives of the de- 
ceased, executed in latten, which was a species of fine brass 
metal, and richly gilt : these figures are disposed five on each 
side, and two at either end, of the tomb. Underneath every 
figure, in starred quatrefoils, is a shield with armorial bearings 
enamelled on brass, and between the larger canopies, alter- 
nately, a smaller, containing an angel, executed in similar 
metal with the portraitures of the mourners, and holding in one 
hand, a scroll, on which is engraven in Gothic letter, 

Slit Xi$o lam tt glovUf Uttuncti^ miuviccvtiia. 

The female , relatives are ranged on the north side of the 
tomb, the males on the south, in the following order, commenc- 
ing from the head, or west end of the monument. 



Richard Neville, Earl of Salis- Quaiterly(1.4.)or3mascles,a2.quarter- 

, ing or a spiead eagle az, (2'. 3.) gules 

J ' a saltire or, under a label of 3 points, 

chequfe or and az. 

Edmund Beaufort, Duke of So- in a border arg. and az, France and 

merset, second husband to Ele- ^"s**""^- 
anor, second daughter, by the 
first marriage, of the Earl of 
Warwick. 

19 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 



Humphrey Stafford, Duke of 
Buckingham, husband to Anne, 
daughter of Ralph Neville, 
Earl of Westmorland. 

John Talbot, Earl of Shrews- 
bury, husband to Margaret, 
eldest daughter, by the first 
marriage, of the Earl of War- 
wick. 

Richard Neville, (the younger) 
Earl of Salisbury, husband to 
Anne, only daughter of the 
Earl of Warwick, by his se- 
cond marriage. 



Quarterly (1.) Beaufort, as before. (2. 3.) 
az. a bend cottized or between six lion- 
eels rampant or. (4.) or a cbevron 
gules. 

Quarterly (1.) azure, in a border or a lion 
rampant or. (2.) gules, in a border en- 
grailed or, a lion rampant or. (3.) or 
two lions passant guardant gules. (4.) 
or, a bend between six birds' heads 
gules. 

Gules, a saltire, or under a label of three 
points, chequfe or and az. 



Corresponding with the above, on the north side, are^ 



Alice, daughter and heir to Tho- 
mas Montague, Earl of Salis^ 
bury, wife of Richard Neville 
(father toRichard Neville before 
mentioned) Earl of Salisbury. 

Margaret, wife of John Talbot, 
Earl of Shrewsbury, eldest 
daughter of the Eatl of War- 
wick, by his first marriage. 

Anne, wife of Humphrey Staf- 
ford, Duke of Buckingham, 
daughter of Ralph Neville, 
Earl of Westmorland. 



Quarterly, (1.) Beauch'amp. (2.) chequ^ 
or and az. a chevron erm. (3.) Neville 
impaling quarterly, (1.) or, three mas- 
cles gules. (2.) or, a spread eagle, 
gules. (3.) per pale, gules and or, 
two chevtons. (4.) arg. a bend az. quar- 
tering gules, a fret or. 

Quarterly, (1.) az. in a border or, a lion 
rampant or. (2.) gules, in a border en- 
grailed or, a lion rampant or. (3.) or, 
two lions passant guardant, gules. (4.) 
or, a bend between six birds' heads 
gules; impaling Beauchamp, quartering 
the chequb and chevron. 

Quarterly, (1.) France and England. 
(2. 3.) az. a bend cottized, gules, be- 
tween six lioncels rampant or. (4.) or, 
a chevron, gules ; impaling gutes, a sal- 
tire or. 



20 



EARL OF WARWICK. 



Eleanor, wife of Edmund Beau- 
fort, Duke of Somerset, second 
daughter, by the first marriage, 
of the Earl of Warwick. 

Anne, wife of Richard Neville, 
Earl of Salisbury, only daugh- 
ter of the Earl of Warwick, by 
his second marriage. 

At the head of the tomb, are, 

Henry Beauchamp, Earl, and 
afterwards Duke of Warwick, 
only son of the deceased. 

Cicily, daughter of Richard Ne- 
ville, Earl of Salisbury, wife to 
Henry Beauchamp. 



In a bolder, or and az. France and Eng- 
land, impaling Beauchamp, quartering 
the chequfe and chevron. 



Quarterly, (1 . 4.) or, three mascles az. 
quartering or, a spread eagle az. (2. 3.) 
gules a saltire or, under a label of three 
points, chequfe or and azure. 



Quarterly, (1.) Beauchamp, (2.) or, three 
chevi;oneIs gu. (3.) chequ^, or and az. 
a chevron erm. (4.) arg. a bend sable 
quartering gu. a fret or. 

Quarterly, (1.) Beauchamp. (2.) or, 
three chevronels gu. (3.) chequ^, 
or and az. a chevron erm. (4.) arg. a 
bend sable, quartering gu. a fret or, 
impaling quarterly (1. 4.) or three 
mascles az. quartering or a spread 
eagle az. (2. 3.) gu. a saltire or, un- 
der a label of three points, chequb or 
and az. 



And at the feet, 
George Neville, Lord Latimer. 



Elizabeth, third daughter, by the 
first marriage, of the Earl of 
Warwick, and wife to Lord 
Latimer. 



Gu. a cross flor^ or, quartering gu. a sal- 
tire or, on the saltire two links of a 
chain. 

The foregoing quarteringi of Latimer; 
impaling quarterly (1.) gu. a.fess or, 
between six mascles or, (2. 3.) chequfe, 
or and az. a chevron erm. (4.) Beau- 
champ. 



The drapery of all these figures is skilfully varied, and the 
whole disposed in a most masterly style. Three of them, 
Richard Neville the elder, Margaret, the eldest daughter of the 

21 



RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, 

Earl, and Cicily, wife of Henry Beauchamp, hold scrolls in their 
hands. Henry Beauchamp, the Duke of Somerset, the Earl of 
Shrewsbury, Richard Neville (the son) Earl of Salisbury, and 
the Duchess of Somerset, are holding books ; and, with the ex- 
ception of the Duke of Buckingham, whose arms are concealed 
under his cloak, all the other figures have rosaries suspended 
from their hands.. The corners of the tomb are supported by 
brass poles moulded at the top, the bottom, and in the middle ; 
and at the summit of the whole, on a table of brass, gilt, re- 
poses the effigy of the Earl, cast, as we have before seen from the 
agreement, in fine latten, richly gilt. The image (the head and 
hands excepted, which are uncovered) is in complete armour, 
with the garter encircling the left leg. The head rests upon 
a helmet surmounted by the family crest, and at the feet are a 
bear-muzzled and a griffin, badges of the ancient house of War- 
wick. Nothing can be more beautiful than the workmanship 
of every part of this figure : the coat of mail may, indeed, be 
almost considered as real armour, from the extreme care and 
exactness that have been bestowed on it by the original artist, 
whom subsequent inspection has proved to have fulfilled his 
engagement to the very letter. The late Mr. Charles Stothard, 
with that ardour and perseverance which were so prominent in 
his character, succeeded, after.very great exertions, in turning 
this massive figure on its face ; and then ascertained, for the 
first time, that every particle of the effigy was as carefully and 
minutely finished .as those parts which were prominent and in 
view. The features are strongly marked; and the whole may, 
without doubt, be considered as giving a faithful representation 
of the persoa whose memory it was intended to perpetuate. 
The entire tomb is surmounted by a hearse of brass hoops, 
gilt, forming a canopy over the effigy ; and on the extremi- 
ties of the poles are engraven the arms of Beauchamp, of 
France and England, and of St. George. 

23 



%1RL OF WARWICK. 

Round the ledge of the tablet, in raised letters, and inter- 
spersed with the badges before mentioned, is the following in- 
scription : 

iMif l^tit^ tttimnt\TS[{(ft tjge sotnel Ingom iSoti assoflle of one of tjbe moost 
fnotsj^^fttl Wixii^m in jbfs Bases of i^onjbo&e anlr eTonnfng, mtbaxn ^ 
iSeatt^amp late lEorl of Mamfotfe g^ hxti Bespenser of ie^ 33er= 
sebenns antrof ntonsotgergrete {et^ lorHs^^s, (ugos ioiiiD restetg j^ere unUer 
tj^te tumbe, in a fulfefre bout of stone set on tj^e Iiare rootg, tj^efoj^ucj^ bisfteb 
faif^ longe si&nes fn tjbe OCastel of ^an tjgerinne trecessetr ful cristenis tjge 
last trap of ^^ ^pttl tjbe ion of ottre Horb €Efo& a. m.tttaxx|x. it 
iiefng at tj^at tgme (^ lieutenant sen'al anli gotietner of tge Hofalme of 
iFtaunte and of tie IBn^ie of 2Cormantite bg sufKctent autotCte of oure 
sou'afsne lordt^e Bfng Se^ ^axxjo tbe b\. tjbetnbutb botrg inftb sreteireltbetac'on 
anlK ftti foorslb^fttl conlittit ^ 9t3t see. (g^ an)) bg jnf lonlr Inas brogfit to 
mSSiaxxtioxk tjge titf tras of October tbe get abouset^e, antr foas (gi^ leflie 
fnftj^ ful solenne exequies fn a feft tbest malre af stone In tj^te tbittge afore 
tj^e fnest ttore of t^fs $ (JTSapel attorbing to j^fs last fnflle (nj? antr ^es« 
tament H tj^ertn to reste tfl tbts tftaftl bg jdim trebtseli bis lief fnere malre. 
M tbe fojbucbe tbapel founded g ^ on tbe rootb, anli alle tbe ntembres 
tberof bts executours ttetit fullg maifee anlr apparatlle giJf d^ bg tbe auc 
tortte of bis settle lastMille antK g Testament ^ntr (e^ tberafterbstbe § same 
auttorite ®;Sca JJitre iS!P translate g fful ggp aSSorsbipfuIlg tbe seitre aaoUg 
into tbe bout abousei&e, bonuretr be €lfotr tberfore. jt^ ie^ 0^0 

We shall conclude this article, already extended, we fear, to 
an unreasonable length, with remarking, that the chapel in 
which the tomb of the Earl of Warwick is placed, is in every 
respect worthy the splendid monument it was erected to receive; 
and, what in these days cannot be always stated with due re- 
gard to truth and sincerity, we may safely affirm, that the care 
and attention bestowed in preserving this beautiful specimen of 
the taste and execution of our forefathers, well deserve the 
acknowledgment and commendation of every admirer of our 
national antiquities. 

23 







r; 




Cofvm, 



"^ 



I'h.hlL-hRd. Mfjri-lLlJ32'i, bylTardin^ Tri:ph^0k ^Lepard.. Unshury SqvjS'&^Zmd/^. 



^ 




Drawn ^y T? B1 itg 






LG?me(r i 



■'■ J.'<J': /r //./ 



JOHN BEAUFORT, 

DUKE OF SOMERSET. 

DIED 1444. 
MONUMENT AT WIMBORN MINSTEK, DORSETSHIRE. 

John Beaufort, second son of Sir John Beaufort, second Earl 
of Somerset, and great-grand-son of John of Gaunt, Duke of 
Lancaster, succeeded his elder brother Henry Earl of Somerset, 
who died during his minority, in the year 1418 (the sixth of 
King Henry the Fifth). He was by that monarch elected knight 
of the garter immediately, and according to the martial spirit of 
the times, endeavoured to prove himself worthy of his sovereign's 
favour by signalizing himself in arms. 

In the ninth of Henry V. (1416) we find him serving in France 
under Thomas Duke of Clarence ; and at the battle of Baugy, 
in 1421, an engagement in which the Duke lost his life, and m 
which, owing to the treachery of a spy, the English forces were 
overpowered by the superior force of the French and Scotch, the 
Earl of Somerset was, together with many other persons of rank, 
taken prisoner, and being retained in confinement for a long period, 
was released upon the payment of a large ransom. Dugdale, in 
his " Baronage," says the Earl was captured " in an unhappy ad- 
venture of passing a marish, near the castle of Beaufort." Holin- 
shed gives the particulars at greater length, and differs but little 
from Walsingham. " But while these things were thus adooing in 
England, the Duke of Clarence, the King's lieutenant in France 
and Normandie, assembled togither all the garrisons of NormandiCi 

1 



JOHN BEAUFORT, 

at the tOAvne of Bernaie, and from thence departed to the countrie 
of Maine, and at Pont le Gene he passed the riuer of Yonne, and 
rode through all the countrie to -Lucie, where he passed the riuer 
of Loire, and entered into Anion, and came before the citie of 
Angiers, where he made manie knights, that is to saie, sir William 
Ros, sir Henrie Goddard, sir Rowland Rider, sir Thomas Beau- 
fort, called the bastard of Clarence, and diuerse other ; and after 
that he had forraied, burnt and spoiled the countrie, he returned 
with preie and pillage to the towne of Beaufort in the valHe, 
where he was aduertised, that a great number of his enimies. 
Frenchmen, Scots, Spaniards and other were assembled togither, 
at a place called Uiell Bauge, that is old Baugie, with the duke 
of Alanson, calling himselfe lieutenant generaUfor the Dolphin. 
" The duke of Clarence had a Lombard resorting vnto him, 
reteined with the part aduerse (his name was Andrew Forgusa*), 
of whom the duke inquired the number of his enimies, towhome 
he reported, that their number was but small, and not of puissance 
to match with halfe the power of his strong armie, intising him 
with assurance of victorie, to set on the Frenchmen. The duke, 
like a courageous prince, assembled togither all the horssemen of 
the armie, and left the archers vnder the guiding of the bastard 
of Clarence and two Portingales, capteins of Fresnie le vicount, 
saieng that he onelie and the nobles would haue the honor of 
that ioumie. When the duke was passed a certeine streict and 
narrow passage, he espied his enimies ranged in good order of 
battell, by the monition of the Lombard, which had sold him to 
his enimies, and his aduersaries had laid such ambushments at 
the streicts, that the duke by no waie without battell, could 
either retire or flee. 



* Wakinglmm says he was deceived by two SeotSj who were intei-cepted by his 
smuts. 

•2 



DUKE OF SOMERSET. 

" The Englishmen seeing this, valiantlie set on their enimies, 
who were foure to one, by reason whereof at length the English- 
men were oppressed with multitude, and brought to confusion. 
There were slaine the duke of Clarence, the earle of Tankeruile, 
the lord Ros, sir Gilbert UmfreuUe earle of Angus, and sir John 
Lomlie, sir Robert Uerend, and almost two thousand English- 
men : and the earles of Summerset, Suffolke, and Perth, the lord 
Fitz- Water, sir John Berkelie, sir Rafei Neuile, sir Henrie IngUs, 
sir WiUam Bowes, sir Wiliam Longton, sir Thomas Borough, and 
diuerse other taken prisoners. And of the Frenchmen were 
slaine above twelue hundred of the best men of warre they had, 

so that they gamed not much This battell was fought on 

Easter euen in the year 1421." 

In the ninth and tenth and twelfth years of Henry VI. we 
again find the Earl of Somerset engaged in the French wars ; 
in the fifteenth he bore a distinguished part at the successful 
siege of Harfleur. In the eighteenth of the same reign he was 
by indenture retained to serve the Kiog with four knights, 
ninety-five men at arms, and a body of two thousand archers. 
In the twenty-first of Henry VI. he was created Duke of 
Somerset and Earl of Kendall, being, at the same time, con- 
stituted Lieutenant and Captain-general of Aquitain, of the 
realm of France and of the duchy of Normandy. He was also, 
at this juncture, retained to serve the King as Lieutenant of 
Aquitain, for one year, with four barons, seven hundred and 
fifty-eight men at arms, and fourteen hundred archers. 

There are not wanting writers who say that the appointment 
of the Duke of Somerset to this command in France and Nor- 
mandy was obtained through the contrivance of the Marquis of 
SuflFolk ; the appointment itself, as well as the iU success attendant 
on it, are recorded in a contemporary chronicle, where we meet 
with the following passages : — " Eodem anno," (viz. 21 Henry 
VI.) it was resolved " in regis et regni concilio," on account of 

3 



JOHN BEAUFORT, 

the ill success of the Duke of York in France, that John Earl 
of Somerset should be appointed to succeed him : — " militem 
secundum rationis existimationem satis habilem et audacem, 
illuc cum valida militum multitudine sue dignitati respondente ; 
quem Rex prius in Ducem Somercetie exaltavit, estimans ipsum 
contra ejus emulos plurima laudum preconia optinere ; licet ejus 
opera exteriori vultui minime responderunf, quia infra breve in 
Angliam rediit absque sibi aut regno lucro aut honore, unde 
Rex cum oculo dextro non respexit tempore ejus vite, quod non 
diu fuerat post regressum." 

John, .Duke of Somerset, married Margaret, daughter of Sir 
John Beauchamp of Bletsoe (relict of Sir Oliver St. John, by 
whom she had issue two sons. Sir John St. John, and Oliver 
St. John, ancestors of the present noble families of Bolinbroke 
and St. John, and five daughters), and had by her one daughter 
only, Margaret, Countess of Richmond, of whom a particular 
account will be found in another part of the present work. Her 
mother, the Duchess of Somerset, married, for the third time. 
Sir Lionel de Wells. 

The Duke died on the twenty-seventh day of May 1444, (22 
Henry VI.) then seised of the manors of BUlingburgh, Lincoln- 
shire ; Bedhampton, in the county of Southampton ; Burton and 
Wyresdale, Somersetshire ; two parts of the towns of Gresmere, 
Logaryg, Langeden, Casterton, Kirkby in Kendale, Hamelset, 
Troutbeck, with the reversion of two parts of the manors of 
Helsyngton, Crostwayte, Hoton, Frothwayt, and Shykland-Ketel, 
in Westmoreland, as also of the manor and lordship of Bowes, 
Yorkshire. 

His monument stands on the south side of the choir, adjoining 
the altar of Wimborne Minster, under an arch of much earlier 
date, which divides that part of the church from a side aisle. It 
consists of an altar-tomb of Sussex marble, on which repose the 
efiigies of the Duke and his Duchess, wrought in alabaster. He 

4 



DUKE OF SOMERSET. 

is represented as completely clad in plate armour, the face and 
right hand only being exposed ; his helmet is encircled by a rich 
coronet, and from his neck hangs a collar of SS. ; his right Jiand 
holds that of his wife, his left sustains a gauntlet, and rests on the 
breast ; on the left leg, a little below the knee, the Duke wears 
the Garter ; on his left side is a sword, now much broken, but 
formerly richly ornamented*, and on the right a dagger, attached 
to the belt by a small cord. The front of the helmet has been 
inscribed with a pious motto, of which the word matci is still 
legible : his head rests on a double cushion, supported on each 
side by an angel, and at his feet is a lion couchant. The seams 
of the armour, sword-belt, and decorations of the helmet, are de- 
signed and executed in the most beautiful style, and retain a 
portion of their original gilding. The cushions liave been 
painted diaper patterns ; but there are no remains perceptible, 
on any part of the figure, to warrant the conclusion that it was 
ever painted. 

The figure of the Duchess is habited in the fashion of the 
time : a veil passes over the forehead, and falls on each side to 
the shoulders ; her mantle reaching to the feet ; her right hand 
is joined to that of her husband, and has rings on the two middle 
fingers ; her left hand holds the cordon of her mantle, but the 
fingers are broken off; her long tight sleeves, with beaded seams, 
reach down to the wrists, and a petticoat falling in straight folds 
covers the feet ; on her head is a coronet, similar to that worn 
by the Duke, as well as a collar of SS. round her neck ; a double 
cushion under her head is supported on either side by an angel, 
and at her feet is an animal to which it is not easy to assign a 



* According to the plate in Sandford, the sword was suspended from a magni- 
ficent belt, buckled round the body, and richly studded with precious stones ; 
on the hilt of the scabbard was inscribed % |^ Sb. In Hutchins's time the legend 
on the helmet was ihu marci. 

5 



JOHN BEAUFORT, DUKE OF SOMERSET. 

name ; Gough calls it an antelope, but it bears a stronger resem- 
blance to a boar. 

Neither inscription nor armorial bearing now remain ; but on the 
south side, the brass nails by which they have been attached give 
evidence that they once existed on that side of the tomb, though 
there is not the slightest indication of their ever having been 
attached to the opposite side. The choir is so much raised above 
the adjoining side aisle, as to allow space for an arched doorway 
of ample dimensions beneath the monument, leading to a vaulted 
space under the choir : on this side, the base of the monument 
projects beyond the face of the wall, and is supported over the 
door by a wooden arch with ornamented spandrils. An original 
helmet, so nearly of the date of the monument, is placed above 
it, that we can scarcely doubt its connexion with our present 
subject, and we have accordingly given a representation of it in 
the present page. With the exception of the loss of the brass 
escutcheons from the side of the tomb, and the inscription inlaid 
on its edge, together with some other minute and trifling mu- 
tilations, this monument is in as perfect a state as when first 
erectedj and affords an excellent specimen of the period to which 
it belongs. 





Drawn & Eiigra.ved "by fidw^ Blore. 






&^ 



Fublishel MarcKZ2825.i?y Msj-dui^/JyipIiook i: Lcpar±,l)jnsbury SqujirL.Zori^jn.. 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

Ob. 1446. 



MONUMENT AT ST. ALBANS. 



HuMPHRET OF LANCASTER, fourth SOU of King Henry the 
Fourth, by his first wife, M,ary de Bohun, daughter and co-heir 
of Humphrey, Earl of Hereford and Northampton, was created 
Earl of Pembroke and Duke of Gloucester, in the second year 
of his brother King Henry the Fifth. He had previously been 
made a Knight of the Bath, at the Coronation of his father, and 
had obtained possessions of considerable value in Wales, toge- 
ther with an annuity of five hundred marcs, to himself and his 
heirs male, payable from the Exchequer, until provision of lands 
equivalent should be assigned to him. 

That the Duke of Gloucester received his education in the 
University of Oxford, there can be no reasonable doubt, since 
it is so stated by all ancient writers of good credit ; and the 
received opinion is, that he studied in Balliol College, a society 
that may well be proud of having produced one of the best of 
Princes, and, perhaps, the most learned and accomplished of 
his age : " excoluit tuni juvenis, tum etiam senex virtutem, ut 
qui maxime,", says Leland; who adds, " hinc clarus domi 
militiseque, et bonis omnibus gratissimus ; amavit praeter cetera 
politas literas, quibus etiam impendio invigilavit." 

To his other merits and accomplishments, Duke Humphrey 
added the distinguishing virtue of his time, that of invincible 
courage aided by consummate military skill. He had a chief 
command given him at the siege of Harfleur, and at the battle of 

1 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

Agincourt received a dangerous sword-wound, in consideration 
of which, the King bestowed upon him the Castle and Lordship 
of Llanstephan in Wales. In all the warlike operations' of his 
brother in France, he appears to have borne a distinguished 
part. He besieged the Castle of Tongue; at the siege of 
Alenzon he pitched his tent before the castle; he reduced 
Cherburgh, notwithstanding a most obstinate resistance ; and 
at the siege of Roan, occupied the station of greatest importance, 
and the most exposed to danger. Will, de Pakington, who 
wrote a chronicle quoted by Leland in his Collectanea, says, 
" then cam the King agayne to Roone, and to hym cam the 
Duke of Glocestre from Chereburge, and lay nerer to Rone then 
any of the other, by forty roodes." 

Numerous were the offices of trust or of honour conferred 
upon him. In the fourth of King Henry the Fifth, he was made 
Constable of Dover Castle, and had theWardenship of the Cinque 
Ports granted to him for the term of his life ; in the following 
year he was appointed Lieutenant of England, during the 
absence of King Henry in France, and of the Duke of Bedford 
in Normandy, an office that again devolved upon him in the 
tenth of the same reign, and, subsequently, during that of his 
nephew, Henry the Sixth. He was also, under that Prince, 
constituted Justice of North Wales, made Governor of the 
Castle of Guisnes, appointed Chamberlain of England durihg 
the King's pleasure, Steward of England at the Coronation, and, 
lastly, he was created Earl of Flanders, durante vitd, and had 
a grant of the Isle of Jersey, together with one of a pecuniary 
nature consisting of two thousand marcs per annum, to be 
received at the Exchequer, in recompense, says Dugdale, from 
the original patent, of his vast labours, costs, and attendance 
upon the King's service, as well in council as otherwise, for the 
public good. 

But the most important charge confided to the care of Duke 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

Humphrey, was that of Protector of England, on the Accession 
of King Henry the Sixth. This was an office to which he alone 
had been specially named by his brother on his death-bed, and 
although the English Parliament thought proper to disregard 
the verbal nomination of their late sovereign, and to constitute 
his elder brother, John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, Protector; 
yet the Duke of Gloucester was appointed to act during his 
absence, and to assume the same title, which, as the original 
instrument gives it, was " Regni nostri Angliae et Ecclesise Ang- 
licanee Protector et Defensor, ac principalis Consiliarius noster ;" 
and the continued residence of the Duke of Bedford in France 
contributed to throw the exercise of this dignity almost, if not 
altogether, into the hands of Gloucester. It would, perhaps, 
have been well for the latter, if he had not been called on to fill 
so prominent a station in the government of the country. 
Learned, brave, generous, open-hearted, and with all the 
qualities most requisite to obtain popular favour, the Duke was 
a man of strong passions, and unbending pride : he was, more- 
over, tenacious of his own opinions, and inclined to treat with 
haughtiness and contempt those of his associates in the council; 
conduct that did not fail to exasperate the haughty spirit of 
several of the members of administration, and to create enemies 
among some of the most powerful, who found it difficult to sub- 
mit to the superiority affected by the Protector. Of these, Car- 
dinal Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, the Dukes of Somerset, 
Suffolk, and Buckingham, were the principal ; and the marriage 
of King Henry, with Margaret of Anjou, gave an active 
coadjutor to the Duke of Gloucester's opponents, in the person 
of the Queen. That Princess, whose masculine spirit and 
commanding temper could ill brook the opposition given by 
the Protector to her union with his nephew, readily lent her 
pov/erful aid to the cardinal and his coadjutors, and the Duke's 
ruin was speedily resolved on. They first endeavoured to 

3 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTEH. 

accomplish this by bringing certain accusations against himself 
and his administration of affairs, which they summoned him to 
answer before the King and council. Amongst many other 
articles,- they insisted chiefly, that being the principal governor 
of the nation during the minority of the King, he had, to his 
majesty's great dishonour, and the injury of his subjects, caused 
several persons to be put to death, contrary to the laws of the 
land; that when any persons had been deservedly doomed to 
suffer capital punishment on account of their crimes, he, out of 
the cruelty of his dispositioUj ordered them to suffer other 
deaths than the laws assigned, showing thereby that he was 
unjust even in the execution of justice; and that whereas he 
ought most strictly to have observed the laws, he was himself 
the greatest breaker of them. Such were the charges adduced 
against the Duke, who having very patiently listened to their 
recital, gave so clear and satisfactory a refutation of them, that 
he was acquitted by the Council , and became still more a 
favourite with the people at large. 

Although foiled in this attempt to rid themselves of one 
whose popularity was become dangerous, and whose resentment 
they had now but too good reason to apprehend, the Queen, 
the Cardinal, and their adherents, devised another method for 
the destruction of their victim. They summoned a parliament, 
not as usual in London, but to meet atSt. Edmondsbury ; and, 
on the second day, the Lord Beaumont, then High Constable 
of England, accompanied by Buckingham, Somerset, and others 
of the Queen's party, arrested Duke Humphrey of high treason, 
and placed him in custody under a strong guard-. The charges 
adduced against him were too ridiculous to deserve serious con- 
sideration, and it has been conjectured, not without probability, 
that this was done to prevent the interposition of the people, who, 
the more improbable they deemed the crime, were the better 
content to rely on the Duke's innocence and sagacity for his 

4 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

exculpation. After a few days' confinement (some authors say, 
the very night after his committal) he was found dead in his bed, 
and the universal opinion of the country was that he had been 
assatsinated. There are not wanting some modern historians who 
think the Duke's death arose from natural and not violent causes, 
and it is certainly true, that his friend. Abbot Wethamstead, is 
silent on the subject ; but When we recollect the temper of the 
times, the violence of party, and, above all, the character, rank, 
and power of the Duke's enemies, there seems but too much 
reason to fall in with the commonly received opinion, and to con- 
clude, that the illustrious person in question died by the hand of 
treachery and violence. " The trueth is," says Packington, as 
quoted by Leland, '• that such as then rulid aboute the King, 
supposing that he wold have let the deliveraunce of Aungeo 
and Mayne, and so made hym away." 

Duke Humphrey of Gloucester was twice married, and both 
his matches may well be termed unfortunate. His first wife 
was Jacqueline, Countess of Hainault and Holland, who had 
been betrothed to the Duke of Brabant, but whose high spirit, 
joined, perhaps, with a sanguine complexion and strong pas- 
sions, were ill suited for union with a youth who had scarcely 
reached his fifteenth year, was of sickly constitution and but weak 
intellect. Abandoning her husband, with an intention of pro- 
curing a divorce from the Court of Rome, she threw herseilf 
under the protection of the Duke of Gloucester, who, with more 
zeal than prudence, lent himself to her cause, and, with greater 
gallantry than virtue,- proposed himself as her husband, no 
dispensation or divorce having been procured. The effects of 
this hasty and ill-advised match were truly disastrous. The 
Duke of Burgundy, a near relation of John of Brabant, with- 
drew from his alliance with England ; a sharp and expensive 
war ensued in the Low Countries, and, to crown all, the Pope 
not only annulled the - contract between Jacqueline and the 
Duke, but declared, that even in case of her husband's death, 

5 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

it never should be lavy^ful for her to espouse the English Prince. 
After this divorce,- Puke Humphrey married Eleanor, daughter 
to Reginald, Lord Cobham ; she was a person of great beauty 
but of indifferent character, and had. been mistress to the Duke 
some time previously to their union. A few years before the 
Duke's death, a severe blow was aimed at him, and but too 
successfully, in the person of this his Duchess, whom he ten- 
derly loved. She was accused of the crime of witchcraft, and 
charged with high treason, in compassing the death of the 
King, by melting a waxen figure of Henry,,, with some ihagical 
incantations, before a slow fire, with an intention- of causing w 
corresponding decay in the person and vigour of his Majesty. 
The unhappy Duchess acknowledged she had given her husband 
potions to retain and augment his affection, and that she had 
consulted fortune-tellers, on her own and the Duke's probable 
advancement ; and on this ridiculous ' charge, and as ridiculous- 
confession, she was adjudged to perform a solemn and public 
penance in London^ on three several days, and afterwards 
committed to perpetual imprisonment in the Isle of Man. 

Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, was not only one of the most 
learned Princes, but one of the greatest benefactors to literature 
and science, of his age. When the University of Oxford was 
about to erect that beautiful room which is still standings and 
kno>yn by the name of the Divinity, School, the Duke con- 
tributed so largely towards its erection, that he has been 
comjnonly considered the founder of the building. It was, 
however, erected by the assistance of many of the most eminent 
persons of the day, among whom was the Duke; but so far was 
this, nobleman from being the sole founder of the school, that it 
was not completed till 1480, having remained in an imperfect 
state for nearly sixty years from the commencement of the 
building. The University was, indeed, indebted to Thomas 
Kempe, Bishop of London, for a donation of a thousand marks, so 
late as 1478, which enabled them to proceed ; and in gratitudfe 

6 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

for this liberality, certain anniversary masses were s^ppointed to 
be said for the souls of himself a.nd his uncle, the Archbishop 
of York, on the days of St. Luke and St. FridesWyde. 

Iff however, we are compelled to oppose the Duke's claim, 
as sole founder of the Divinity School at Oxford, his unbounded 
generosity towards the library of ]t,hat seat of learmiig cannot, 
with any propriety, be called in question. At the time the 
library, which now forms the centre of Sir Thomas Bodley's 
building, was first began, the Duke sent one hundred a,nd twenty- 
nine treatises to be placed there for the use of the University, 
when the builjiing should be fit for their reception. Thi^,',his 
first donation, was valued at above a thousand pounds. He next 
sent them one hundred apd twenty-six volumes in 1440, adding 
nine others in the same year. In 1443, he again presenteid 
them with an hundred and thirty-nine, and his fifth and last gift, 
during his life- time, was one hundred and thirty-five more. 
Besides all these, which amounted in number to rnore than six 
hundred volumes of divinity, medicine, history, and general 
literature, a mass of learning almost incredible to have been 
collected by an individual, (when we remember the extreme 
difficulty and the immense expense attendant on such an 
acquisition,) the Duke promised the contents of his own private 
. study, which was peculiarly rich in Latin authors, as 'v\^ell as 
one hundred pounds in money, towards perfecting the building. 
These, together with the pecuniary gift, were recovered, not 
without some trouble, after his decease. We have been the 
more particular in detailing this splendid instance of liberality^ 
because, but for subsequent events, the Duke of Gloucester 
would have proved one of the greatest literary benefactors 
Oxford, or the country, at large, had ever known. The Refor- 
mation, however, in spite of all the blessings we have gained 
from its introduction and rapid progress, was peculiarly 
destructive to polite literature and the monuments of early art 
in this country. Of all the splendid and costly works given bv 

7 



' HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

Duke Humphrey to the University of Oxford, two volumes 
only remain in the Bodleian Library; these are a copy of 
Valerius Maximus, on vellum, evidently written in the Duke's 
time, and probably on purpose for him, and the dedication topy 
of Leonard Aretin's translation of Aristotle's Politics into Latin. 
Every other volume of this noble collection was destroyed, or 
stolen, by the visitors of King Edward the Sixth, whose pious 
zeal, and consummate avarice or ignorance, led them to imagine 
that every page containing an illumination must have some 
connexion with Popery, and who condemned the Classics 
because they were anti-christian ! 

The Duke of Gloucester has been recorded by Bale, Leland, 
and other literary biographers, as being himself an author, and 
they have ascribed to him an astronomical treatise entitled 
Tabulcs Directionum. This, however, was certainly not written 
by the Duke, although the anonymous author informs us, that 
it was compiled at his grace's instance, and according to some 
tables which himself had constructed. That he was skilled in 
astronomy, theri a favourite science, some tables bearing the 
Duke's name, and still preserved in the Ashmolean Museum, 
sufficiently demonstrate. 

We will conclude this article with a relation of his sagacity 
first given by Sir Thomas More. The anecdote has been 
dramatised by Shakspeare, but, although well known, derives 
additional interest from the quaintness with which it is narrated. 
" In the time of King Henry the Sixt, as he roade in progresse, 
there came to the towne of Saint Albons a certayne beggar with 
hys wyfe, and there was walking about the towne begging fine 
or sixe dayes before the kinge's comming thether, sayeng that 
he was borne blinde and never sawe in all his life, and was 
warned in his dreame that he should come out of Berwike, 
where he sayd that he' had euer dwelled, to seke Saint Albon, 
and that he had bene at his shrine, and was not holpen, and, 
therefore, he would go seeke him at some other place : for he 

8 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

had heard some saye. sence he came, that Saint Albon's body 

should be at Colyn, and in dede such a contention had there 

bene. But, of truth, as I am certainely informed, he lyethhere 

at Saint Albones, sauing some reliques of him, which they there 

she we shryned. But to tell you foorth : when the King was 

come, and the towne full of people, sodainely this blind man 

at Saint Albone's shryne had his sight, and the same was 

solempnly rong for a miracle, and Te Deum songen, so that 

nothing was talked of in all the towne but this miracle. So 

happened it then that Duke Humphrey of Gloucester, a man 

no lesse wise, then also well lemed, hauing great ioy to see 

suche a miracle, called the poore man vnto him, and first 

shewyng himselfe ioyous of God's glorie, so shewed in the 

getting of his sight, and exhorting him to meekenesse, and to 

no ascribyng of any part of the worship to himselfe, nor to be 

prowde of the people's praise, which would call him a good 

and a godly man therby : at the last he looked well vpon his 

eien, and asked whether he could euer see any thing at al in all 

his life before ? And when as well his wife as himself affirmed 

fastly, no, then he looked aduisedly vpon his eyen agayne, and 

sayde, I beleeue you very well, for me thinketh that ye can not 

see well yet. Yes, Sir, quoth hee, I thanke God and his holy 

martir, I can see now as well as any man. Yea, can you ? quod 

the Duke, what colour is my gowne? Then anone the begger 

•tolde him. What colour, quod he, is this man's gowne? he 

tolde him also without anye stayeng or stomblyng, and tolde 

the names of all the colours that coulde be shewed him. And 

when, the duke sawe that, he bade him, walke Faytoure! and 

made him to be set openly in the stockes : for though he could 

have sene sodaynely by miracle the difference betwene dyuers 

coloures, yet could he not by sight sodainely tell the names of 

all these coloures, except he had knowne them before, no 

more then he coulde name all the men whome he should 

sodainely see." ' 

9 



HUMPHREY; DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

The monument of Duke Humphrey stands behind the altar, 
in the Abbey Church of St. Alban's, on the south side of that 
part of the building in which was the shrine of the patron §aint, 
and immediately under an arch which separates it from the side 
aisle.- It is composed entirely of stone, and is elaborately 
finished on either side. The annexed plate represents the north 
side of the monument, and in the fore-ground is seen the door 
leading to the vault in which the bones of the deceased prince 
still remain, and are occasionally exhibited, in no very good 
taste, to gratify idle curiosity. The discovery, of this vault was 
made in the year 1701, (not' 1703, as Mr. Gough supposes) at 
which time the workmen, in digging for a grave, accidentally 
broke into the stone steps, , and were, induced to examine far- 
ther, when they procured an easyvcntrance into the vault. We 
have been so fortunate as to obtain access to an original draw- 
ing, made by Vertue at the time, and upon the spot, which 
gives a much better representation of the chamber, and the 
state in which the coffin was foupd, than any description we 
could offer; and, accordingly, our readers are presented with 
an exact copy, somewhat diminished, of this curiosity. Vertue 
w^s not only an excellent artist, but a very good antiquary ; 
and, therefore, the accuracy of this interesting delineation may 
be depended on. It is the more valuable, since the original 
painting on the wall, at the feet of the coffin, is hourly decaying; 
the inscription, as well as the title on the cross, .have long 
since been obliterated.-. The vault is eight feet, by five feet 
eight inches, and six feet eight inches high, with an arched roof 
of stone. Salmon, whp lived at the titne this discovery was 
made, writes thus : — ;'* In this vault," says he, " stands a leaden 
coffin, with the body preserved by the pickle it lies in, except 
the legs, from which the flesh is wasted, the pickle at that end 
being dried up. On the wall, at the east end of the vault, is a 
crucifix painted, with a cup on each side of the hiead, another 
at the side, and a fourth at the feet. The vault looks very neat, 

10 



HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

and hath no offensive smell. The coffin, we are told, had an 
outside of wood, which is now entirely gone." We regret to 
add to this account, that such have been the rudeness and want 
of decency (to use no harsher terms) of the visitors, and such 
the want of care in the attendants, that nothing is now visible, 
except the broken skeleton of the great man, for the preserva- 
tion of whose remains so much precaution and expense were 
used. 11 











HUMPHREY, DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. 

It will be necessary to say but little by way of illustration of 
the monument before us; the engraving affording a far better 
idea of the original, than our verbal description. Over the 
principal arch is a range of canopies, the chief of which filled 
with open tracery work, the intermediate ones consisting 
of a series of niches. Those on the south side still retain seven-- 
teen figures, intended, probably, for the illustrious progenitors 
of the deceased. ,0n the south side these are wanting; a loss, 
however, the less to be regretted, as they are clumsy and ill- 
proportioned, contributing only to the general richness of effect, - 
but, in themselveS; inelegant and obscure. In the broad mouldfedl 
cornice, between these canopies and the principal arch, are 
seven shields, bearing the arms of the Duke of Gloudester, the 
centre and two intermediate ones Surmounted with a helmet 
lanijprequin and cap of maintenance ; the others with cap of state 
or qoronet. The intervals between these shields have ;been 
filled with antelopes, the badge of the Duke, but these are, in 
a great measure, broken away. The shields, in the spandrils 
of the principal arches, are also charged with the same bearing; 
and the vaulting underneath is covered with a profusion of 
tracery and pendants, beautifully designed" and well-executed. 
This monument was erected by Abbot Wetharristead, the friend 
of the Duke of Gloucester, and the device of that distinguished 
ecclesiastic, wheat-ears in groups, occurs on various parts of 
the monument. The original iron fence, divided into squares 
and lozenges, surmounted by a row of quatre-foils, still remains 
on the south side of the monument ; this separates, the side- 
aisle from the portion of the church in which it stands^, and 
was, doubtless, originally intended to afford a view of St. Al- 
ban's shrine from the centre of the monument. 

12 



* '"JV '. 




in Great BriniStoiii ClraiMii. 






SIR JOHN SPENCER. 

DIEB 1522. 
MONUMENT AT BRINGTON, NOKTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

The monument of Sir John Spencer stands on the north side 
of the altar of Great Brington church, under an arch which di- 
vides the chancel from a, chapel, containing, perhaps, as large an 
assemblage of splendid monuments as can be shown by any other 
family in the kingdom. Sir John Spencer, the immediate an- 
cestor of the present noble family of that name, was descended 
from Hugh Le Despenser, the -steward (as the name imports, 
being, according to Camden, assumed from his office) to King 
Henry the First. There appears to be no little difficulty in de- 
ducing the subject of the present article iii a direct line from the 
common ancestor of the family, owing to a confusion that prevails 
in the arrangement of the individuals, and the appropriation of 
the alliances. The recent historian of Northamptonshire, Mr. 
Baker, has acknowledged these discrepancies with great candoiur, 
and by giving three early pedigrees as derived from three different 
sources, has enabled his readers to compare, at the same time that 
he confesses his inability to reconcile, the conflicting statements. 
FoT our own parts, we should be inclined to adopt the Harleian 
MS. No. 6135, and the rather, since it coincides," in aU the main 
particulars, with one preserved in another pubhc Hbrary to which 
Mr. Baker does not appear to have referred. From these two 
sources we apprehend the following may be offered as tolerably 
correct. 

1 



SIR JOHN SPENCER. 

Hugh, Lord of Button, co. Cest.=T= 

— Hugh (Le Despenser), " Dlspensator curiae regis 
Henrici I. bare quarterly argent and gules, in the 
2d and 3d quarter a frett or, a bend sable." 

Thurstan or Tristraml^t Despenser=f= .... 

Almarecke Le Despencer, " dominus de Stanley,"=f=Alda (according to Harl. MS. 



TAiua ^acuoruing lo nan. imo. 
Elizabeth) d. of AdamBlewett. 



Thurstan or Tristram Le Despencer=pLucia .... 
miles, dominus de Stanley j 

. '. I 



Gatfridus Le Despencer, miles, obiit 35° H. 3.= 
," fundavit abbatiam iste GaJiridus dominus 
Spencer H. 3. pro nigris monialibus apud 
Wdlen in Little Merlowej Buckes." 



£mma St. John=j= Ga^erfws Spencer, "dominus de March- 
Lee, in Com. Wigorn. a quo illi de 
Wormeleighton." 



John Spencer=f=Anne 

, 1 

William Spencer, " de Derffbrd et=p 



Buckingham, ob. 2, E. 3." | 
, I 



Jchn Spencer, " dominus de D^rffo^d,=f=Alice da. and L of Giles Dererell. 
quarterly, arg. and gules, a frett 
or, in the 2d and 3d quarters on a 
bend sable 3 escallops arg." 

Nicholas Spencer, Lord of Derford=pJoane, da. of Richard Pollard. 

Thomas Spencer=T= 

Henry Spencer, lord (or rather lessee) of Badby=p Isabel, da. and coh. of Henry 

I Lincolne. 

. .,,„_ „ 1 

John Spencer of Hodnell (co. Warwick)=j= ... da, and h. of Sir Guy de Warsteed. 

P- — ' ' 

William Spencer =pEIizabeth, sister of Sir Eichard Empson of Eston Neston. 

Sir John Spencer. 



The reign of Henry the Sixth was, says the historian of North- 
amptonshire, the period of the Spencer family's first migration 
into this county ; when Henry Spencer.(the great grandfather of 

2 



SIR JOHN SPENCER. 

Sir John), who had been educated in the abbey of Evesham, ob- 
taining from the abbot a lease of the demesnes and tithes of Badby, 
was induced to settle there. By his will, in I7 Edward IV. I476, 
sealed with the present arms of Spencer, the baronial coat of 
Despencer differenced by three escallop shells, he made his sons 
John and Thomas executors, and appointed Isabel his wife over- 
seer. John Spencer, his son and heir, removed to Hodnell in 
Warwickshire, and in honour of his mother and wife, who were 
both heiresses, adopted their arms, affixing his seal of Lincolne 
and Warsted quarterly, to certain deeds of feoffment in which he 
joined with Sir Edward Rawleigh of Famborough near Banbury. 
WiUiam Spencer, son and heir to John, resided at Radbourn in 
Warwickshire, and it was to him, -probably, the grant of arms, 
ar. a fess, erm. between six sea mews' heads erased, ar. was made 
in 1504, which was partially adopted by his son^ who subsequently 
resumed the ancient arms of the Despencer family, as is proved 
from their being blazoned on his monument. There have not 
been wanting writers who have endeavoured to impugn the claim 
of the present noble family to their descent from the early De- 
spencer line, in consequence of this exchange of armorial bearings, 
when in feet nothing was more common, either out of compliment 
or for caprice, than for persons of the highest rank to adopt other 
coats than those before used by their acknowledged ancestors *. 

Of Sir John Spencer little is now known, excepting that he 
was not only a person possessed of splendid wealth, but. endowed 
with a generous and noble disposition. Having acquired a valu- 
able estate at Snitterfield in Warwickshire, in the right of his wife 
Isabel, daughter and coheir of Walter Graunt, Esq. of that place, 
he occurs in all the pedigrees we have yet seen as " Sir John 



* See this sufficiently proved in another part of the present work, p. 3, article 

GOWER. 

3 



SIR JOHN SPENCER. 

Spencer of Snitterfield," but in 1506 (22 Henry VII.) purchasing 
the great lordship of Wormleighton in that county, he commenced 
the erection of a " fair manor-house" there, in which, when in- 
quisitions were taken concerning wastes and inclosures of land in 
the ninth and tenth years of Henry the Eighth, he was certified 
to have his residence, with sixty persons in family, " being a good 
benefactor to the church in ornaments and other things." He 
was knighted by Henry, and served the office of sheriff in the 
third year of that monarch's reign. 

In addition td Wormleighton, Sir John Spencer added to his 
possessions the manors of Fenny Compton, Warwickshire, Stone- 
ton, Newbottle (including the paramount manors or courts leet 
of Great Brington, Little Brington, Althorp, Harleston, Glas- 
thorp, and Flore), Wicken or Wyke Dyve, and Wyke Hamon, 
Althorp, Upper Bodington, Nether Bodington, and Hinton, and 
lands and tenements in Badby, Daventry, Barby, Gudsborough, 
East Haddon, Holdenby, Brockhole, Hanging Houghton, and 
Church Brampton. It was to this their illustrious ancestor, that 
the Earls Spencer owe the first formation of what has since, by 
the judicious extension of subsequent possessors, become a noble 
park at Althorp. In the fourth of Henry VIII. Sir John Spencer 
obtained a licence to impark three hundred acres of land, one 
hundred acres of wood and forty acres of water at Oldethorpe, 
with free warren there and in Great Brington. Evelyn mentions 
the park at Althorp as the only instance, in his time, where the 
date of any considerable plantation taking place is recorded, a 
practice he strongly recommended for general adoption*. 



* We insert copies of the inscriptions placed in the Althorp plantations ; first, 
because we should be rejoiced to tempt others of rank and fortune to follow sa good 
an example; and secondly, because we doubt not our readers will be as highly 

4 



SIR JOHN SPENCER. 

Although we are not aware of the existence of any document 
by which our supposition may be authenticated, we cannot but 
suspect that the original mansion at Althorp, which was pulled 
down previously to I67O, was erected by Sir John Spencer. 
Baker, in his account of Brington (History of Northamptonshire, 
vol. i. p. 3), says, " it is not known when the present structure 
was erected, but it was restored by Robert second Earl of Sun- 
derland in 1688, and has undergone a complete reparation, and 
a new disposition of the apartments, under the direction of the 
present Earl." Now it is singular that we should have discovered 
the exact date of the building in making researches for a very 
different purpose. In a manuscript volume containing a variety 



pleased as ourselves with the peculiarly apposite quotations attached to the two las 


inscriptions. 








I. This wood was planted by 


II 


. This wood was planted by 


Sir John Spencer Knight 




Sir John Spencer 


Knight 


grandfather of Robert Lord 




father of Robert 




Spencer, in the yeares of 




Lord Spencer in the yeare 


ovr Lord 1567 and 1568. 




of ovr Lord 1589. 




HI. This wood was planted 


IV 


. This wood was 


Vp and bee 


by Robert Lord Spencer 




planted by Sir 


doing and 


in the yeares of ovr Lord 




William Spencer 


God will 


1602 and 1603. 




Knight of the 
Bathe in the 
Yeare of ovr 
Lord 1624. 


prosper. 



V. Planted by George-Johti Earl Spencer, K.G, in the year 1798. 

Seris factura nepotibus umbram. 

VI. Planted by George-John Earl Spencer, K.G. in the year 1800, 

to replace a Grove of Ash fallen to decay. 

Uno avulso non deficit alter. 

5 



SIR JOHN SPENCER. 

of genealogical notices, collected, we suspect, by some person con- 
nected with the College of Arms, we have the following brief 
account of Althorp, which the writer visited May the 23d, 1673^ 
" Althorp is 5 miles beyond Northampton ; Northwest of it, 
(and Holmeby house lyeth within a mile of it) new built I67O 
and 1671 : in Brighton parish. The gallery 60 paces or 120 feet 
long, ouer xx feet: 5 roomes from east to west: in the backe 
part the mote drained : roomes 14 feet high. Sir John, who 
maryd Cath. Kitson, builded the house as ouer the Gatehouse 
sides." We regret our inability to furnish any other particular 
respecting Sir John Spencer than what has been already given by 
the industrious CoEins, and is supplied by an inspection of his will, 
which is unusually long, although it has not been considered by 
our publishers of suflScient interest to warrant an entire transcript. 
In it he entitles himself John Spencer of Wormleighton, in 
the county of Warwick, Knight ; he desires to be buried in the 
chancel of Brynkton church, in the county of Northampton, 
" afore the image of our blessed Lady, and there myne executors 
to make a tombe for me as nigh to the wall as they may, behind 
the sepulture, and to bestow on the said tombe, well and con- 
ningley to be made, xx lib." He gives to the repairs of the said 
chancel> and for his arms to be placed in the windows, xl lib. and 
" for the making an ymage of our ladye with a tabernacle, and 
gyldinge of the same, to be made after the patron (pattern) of 
oon maister caused to be made at Banbury, and to be made by 
the same man that made hys." He devotes xx shillings per 
annum for seven years for two wax tapers to be brenne in two 
candlesticks at our Ladies mass to be said in the said chancel, 
" and my moneth's niynde to be kept by myne executors during 
the first year, and to every preste that shall com there to say mass 
viii''. withoutmeat and dcynk,.and everie clerkethat can synge 
iiii*. the clerke of the church iiii**. and euery rynger that shall 
ryng at Dirige masse to be said xii"; euery poor man and woman 

6 



SIR JOHN SPENCER. 

that shall come and pray at my month's mynde and yeres mynd 
for 5 years 1"*. each." He desires that his executors will give to 
all at his burial that will pray for his soul and take money two- 
pence, to every man, woman, and child; and to every one that 
will come, meat and drink. To the abbot of Kenelworth he 
leaves twenty pounds for his prayer and observance at the day 
of his burial. Besides these, there are innumerable bequests 
to religious houses, for the reparation of churches, besides very 
liberal donations to his relatives and dependents, whereby, says 
our author, it is evident that he had a noble spirit, tempered with 
the greatest humanity. He was likewise so honest and just, and 
of so pious a disposition, that he requires his executors to recom- 
pense every one that can lawfully prove, or will make oath, that 
he has hurt him in any wise, so that they make their claim within 
two years, though, as is recited in the will, he has none in his 
remembrance, but had rather charge their souls, than his own 
should be in danger : and he then requires that his executors 
should cause proclamation thereof to be made once a month, 
during the first year after his decease, at Warwick, Southampton, 
Coventry, Banbury, Daventry, and Northampton. This instru- 
ment is dated on the 12th of April 1522, two days only before 
his decease. 

Sir John Spencer was buried according to his desire, in the 
north chapel, which, together with the chancel, were erected, by 
himself. His monument is entirely of Tottenhoe stone, and re- 
mains in a state of extraordinary preservation. The tomb, and 
the canopy by which it is surmounted, are in point of design the 
same on both sides, but the minuter details, although equally 
beautiful, are considerably varied. The Knight is represented 
in complete armour, excepting that his head is uncovered, and 
resting on his helmet. The hair is short and slightly curled, but 
cut square over the forehead. The figure is in plate armour, 
with maU skirts, and richly ornamented elbow gussets and knee- 

7 



SIR JOHN SPENCER. 

pieces : the shoes are jointed, with broad puckered toes, and rest 
on his gauntlets. A scarlet mantle, lined with green, falls from 
his shoulders and terminates beneath his feet ; his tabard, which 
is seen at the division of the mantle, bearing the arms of Spencer 
ancient. On his right side he wears a dagger, and on the left, a 
sword, the hUts of both highly ornamented. The Lady Isabella 
wears a rich close reticulated head-dress with long lappets, her 
long hair braided in front, divided over the forehead, and flowing 
behind her shoulders to her waist : a necklace of pearls with a 
heart appendant, and highly ornamented, encircles her neck, 
from which a triple chain is suspended. The white bodice, 
richly decorated with pearls, and hollowed out at the sides, sur- 
mounts a long scarlet robe, which conceals her feet, and on a 
girdle beneath hangs a rich rosary : an heraldic mantle, quartering 
Graunt and Ruding, is looped across her bosom, with a tasselled 
cordon, and falls back to her feet, where are the mutilated re- 
mains of two dogs. Both figures have their hands raised in a 
devotional attitude. 

On the south side are three armorial shields. I. On the first, 
in the centre of the frieze, quarterly argent and gules ; on the 
second and third quarters, a fret or ; over all, on a bend sable, 
three escallop shells of the field, Spencer : Crest out of a ducal 
coronet or a grifiin's head argent, gorged with a bar gemeU gules, 
between two wings erect of the second, with mantling and helmet. 

II. On the dexter spandril of the arch, 1 and 6, Spencer. 2. Azure 
a fess ermine between six sea-mews' heads erased argent, Spencer 
ancient. 3. Gules three stirrups in pale or, Durrell. 4. Or on a 
cross gules five muUets of six points pierced argent, Lincolne. 
5. Argent a chevron between three cinquefoils gules, Warsted. 

III. On the sinister spandril, quarterly, Spencer and Spencer 
ancient^ impaling quarterly, 1 and 4 ermine 5 on a chevron gules 
five bezants, differenced by a crescent, Graunt ; 2 and 3, argent 
on a bend between two lions rampant sable, a wivern with wings 

8 



SIR JOHN SPENCER. 

overt of the field, Ruding. On the north side are three cor- 
responding shields. IV. Spencer ancient, with helmet and crest 
destroyed. V. as No. II. VI. Graunt and Ruding quarterly. 
The soffit of the arch is divided into three rows of pannels with 
quatrefoils at regular distances, and in the centre an angel sup- 
portmgarms. Yll. Spencer. Round the sides of the tomb are 
shields within quatrefoils. On the south side, VIII. Spencer, 
impaling quarterly ermine and paly of six or and gules, within a 
border azure, Knightky. IX. Spencer, differenced by a crescent. 
X. Knightky impaling Spencer. At the east end, XI, Spencer 
impaling Graunt. On the north side, XII. Paly of six argent 
and azure, Strelky impaling Spencer. XIII. Argent two lions 
passant sable crowned or, Catesby impaling /%ewcer. XIV. Graunt 
impaling Ruding. 

Within the soffit, at the east end, below the arch, is the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

HERB LIETH THE BODDIES OF SIR lOHN 
SPENCER KNIGHT AND DAME ISABELL HIS 
WIFE ONE OF THE DAUGHTERS AND COHEIRES 
OF WALTER GRAVNT OF SNITTFERFIELD 
IN THE COVNTIE OF WAR: ESQVIER— HER 
MOTHER WAS THE DAVGHTER AND HEIRE 
OF HVMPHRIE RVDINGE OF THE WICHE 
IN THE COVN OF WORCESTER ESQ. WHICH 
lOHN AND ISABELL HAD ISSU SIR WiLL'M 
SPENCER KNIGHT 1. ANTHONY SPENCER 
2 WHO DIED WITHOVT ISSV. lANE WIFE 
TO RICH. KNIGHTLEY ESQVIER SON'E & 
HEIRE OP SIR RICHARDE KNIGHTLEY OF 
FAWSLEY IN THE COUNTIE OF NORTH: 
KNIGHT— ISABELL MARIED TO SIR NICH'S 
STRELLY OF STRELLY IN THE COV'TIE 
OF NOTT. KNIGHT— DOROTHIE MARIED 
TO SIR RICH. CATESBIE OF LEGERS 
ASHBIE IN THE COVN: OF NORTH: KNI: 
WHICH SIR lOHN SPENC. DEPARTED 
THIS LIFE Y^ 14 OF APR. A."- DN'I 1522. 

9 




IS.HWMEiflCS (S>W AmCIHBirf.ISI®!?© IPKCISMAM &WAibiUH,&M, 




1^4 



IK CANTEJfBURY CATHEDRAL. 



J'uhUsked 'B<ri'''US'i4 hv Sia-^ng Tn^lwok- fi: Zcpai-d. Unsbwy Sijuar-.- L/n,hn.. 



WILLIAM WARHAM, 

ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 

Ob. 1532. 
monument at canterbury. 

This amiable prelate was descended from a respectable family- 
residing at Okely, in the diocese of Winchester. H'e was the 
eldest son of Robert and Elizabeth Warham; and after 
receiving his education in the school founded by William 
of Wykeham, was elected in the year 1475, when about seven- 
teen or eighteen years of age, to New College in Oxford, 
where he continued long enough to attain a considerable pro- 
ficiency in the canon and civil law, in which faculties, accord- 
ing to his founder's statutes, he graduated in tfhe university. 
It being, at that period, by no means unusual to connect the 
practice of the courts with the more sacred functions of holy 
orders, Warham, after vacating his fellowship in 1588, by re- 
ceiving from his college the rectory of Great Horwood in 
Buckinghamshire, became an advocate in the court of arches, 
and, it is said, practised there with great reputation. His 
success, however, does not appear to have diminished his 
attachnient to alma mater ; for it is certain, that he returned to 
Oxford, and resided for some time as the principal of the civil 
law school. Warham's fame as a civilian, together with the 
steadiness and prudence of his character, recommended him to 
King Henry the Seventh as a proper person to be employed in 
a diplomatic negociation ; and he was accordingly, in 1493, sent 

1 



WILLIAM WARHAM, 

with Sir Edward Poynings on an embassy to Philip Duke of 
Burgundy, to persuade him to deliver up Parkin Warbeck, then 
pretending himself to be the son of Edward the Fourth, and 
assuming the title of the Duke of York. Although the result 
of this mission was not altogether so successful as might have been 
desired, the King appears to have been satisfied with the part 
taken by Dr. Warham, and promotion, civil and ecclesiastical, ' 
soon followed. In November, 1493, he was collated to the 
chantorship of Wells ; in February following, he was constituted 
Master of the Rolls ; in 1495 he had the rectory of Barley in 
Hertfordshire ; in 1496 was made archdeacon of Huntingdon ; 
in 1502 he had the great seal of England delivered to his care ; 
and sooil after was consecrated Bishop of London. On the 
first of January, 1502-3, Bishop Warham was appointed Lord 
Chancellor, and in the following March was advanced to the 
primacy of England. Of the magnificence and ceremony with 
which he was installed to this new dignity, there is a very 
curious record remaining in the Bodleian Library ; it is a roll 
containing not only a list of the officers appointed on the occa- 
sion, (and the Steward of the household was no less a person 
than Edward, Duke of Buckingham, the most powerful noble- 
man of the realm,) but a minute account of all the viands pro- 
vided for the entertainment of the guests. As the inthronization 
took place on Passion Sunday, the repast consisted entirely of 
fish and pastry ; the expense of which, together with good 
store of claret, hippocrass, and other choice beverages, was no 
less than five hundred and thirteen pounds three shillings. 
The whole of this singular document has been reprinted in 
Hearne's Appendix to Leland's Collectanea, or we should have 
been tempted to make some extracts from it, illustrative of the 
profusion and splendour exhibited on such occasions. 

In 1506, Archbishop Warham was unanimously elected 
Chancellor of the University of Oxford ; that oflSce being then 

2 



ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 

vacant by the resignation of Bishop Mayhew. The Arch- 
bishop's eminent station in the realm, his high character and 
distinguished attainments as a scholar and civilian, peculiarly 
adapted him for this important office, and never was it more 
judiciously or zealously executed than in Warham's hands. 
In less than two years after his election to the chancellorship of 
Oxford, his patron. King Henry the Seventh, died, and the 
accession of his son was soon followed by the rapid and extra- 
ordinary rise of a new and all-powerful favourite* in the person 
of Cardinal Wolsey. There could hardly be two characters^ 
more directly opposed than Wolsey and Warham : the 
former, haughty and overbearing, ambitious of power, and 
ostentatious in the display of it ; Warham, on the contrary, was 
humble and meek, despising outward pomp, and abstaining, 
with great solicitude, from the reality as well as the appearance, 
of all luxjiry and indulgence. The contests between these 
rival statesmen would probably have proceeded to an open 
and irreparable breach, had not the innovations of the Cardinal 
on the privileges of the Primate, innovations which amounted 
almost to insults, been met on the part of Warham with the 
mildest and most conciliating conduct that prudence could 
suggest. Mr. Lodge has preserved a letter of expostulation, 
written by the Archbishop under circumstances of considerable 
provocation. There are others of a similar description in the 
Cotton manuscripts ; and the records of the University of Ox- 
ford contain frequent instances of Wolsey's overbearing dis- 
position, particularly in his infringement on the functions of the 
chancellor in matters of legislation, where no person but the 
highest officer of the university was, by statute, competent to 
interfere. There are several letters extant in the archives of 
the Bodleian, written by Warham at this period : so far 
from breathing any expressions of jealousy or displeasure at the 
profound submission shewn to the wishes and opinions of his 

3 



WILLIAM WARHAM, 

rival, by some of the leading members of that body, he rejoices 
at all the benefits likely to accrue from his patronage and 
liberality. He gently reminds them, that some things de- 
manded by the Cardinal could not, consistently with the long 
established usages of the university, be yielded to his discre- 
tion, and mildly exhorts them to beware, lest, in their anxiety to 
submit their statutes and privileges to the reforming hand of a 
stranger, they eventually undermine their own existence, and 
become a university in. name only, but without weight, 
authority, or government. 

The only circumstance in which Warham's conduct as Chan- 
cellor of Oxford appears deserving of reprehension, was in 
lending himself to procure the sanction of the university to 
the divorce of Henry the Eighth. It is well known, that a 
large majority of the members, particularly the junior regents 
of the convocation, were adverse to the measure^ and the 
delay occasioned by their non-compliance with Henry's wishes, 
exasperated that monarch to such a degree, that he wrote more 
than one letter with his own hand to hasten _ their decision ; 
endeavouring, at one time, to win them to his interest by fair 
words, and at another, to frighten them into submission by 
threats and reproaches. The sense of the university at large 
being decidedly against the divorce, Warham, as chancellor, 
devised an expedient which, being contrary to the spirit and 
usage of the university, was unworthy of him : this was, to 
exclude the masters of art from the deliberation, and to depute 
a limited number of the senior theologians, whose opinion was 
to be taken as that of the whole body, and to be equally 
valid. On this subject Warham wrote a curious letter to the 
convocation: this we give as a specimen of his epistolary 
composition, (which is in the best style of that period,) and the 
rather, as we believe it has never before been made public : it 
was written in 1529. 

4 



ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 

" To my welbelouyde Bretherne in Christd", my Commis- 
sary of the Uniuersitie of Oxforde, and to the Maisters 
Regents, and non Regents of the same, 

" I commende me to yow: and where I undrestand that the 
kyng's most noble grace off late hathe sent thider to you his 
honorble counsailors, my lord of Lincolne and master doctor 
Bell, to haue your aduise and determination of a certen ques- 
tion, the .specialties wherof I doubte not haue be at large 
purposed and declared to yow ; where in I haue also sundry 
tymes hertofor writen to you ; wherfore, as hithertoo I haue 
hadd no answere, to my grete mervaile, consideringe that the 
king's most noble grace hathe be allweys very singular and gra- 
tious good lorde to that vniuersitie; and requirethe nothing off 
yow, but that may be for the resolution off the saide question, 
according to your lerning, I will, aduise, exhorte, and requyer 
you as muche as in me liethe, and as ye intende the con- 
tynuall preseruation of the commyn weale of that uniuersitie 
in tyme to come, and loke to haue any good that I can doo fof 
the same, to endeauoier your selfs to shewe and declare your 
resolute mynds in that behalue, with all spedye and diligent 
expedition, as may be to the plesour of God and accordinge 
to his lawes, and allso to the accomplyshement off the king's 
g^race's desier and plesure in the same. And by cause that, 
as I am enformed, the vniuersities off Parise and Cantabridge 
haue allredye declared theire resolute mynds in this matier, it 
ys to be gretly merveiled, why ye shulde make any difficultie 
or stickinge to doo yn like wyse for your partie, seinge that 
ther ys nothing required off you but to doo accordynge to your 
lerninge, not folowing any sensualitie. And for as miche as by 
siche. a grete multitude as ye be there, wightie matiers cannot 
shortly be determinide, for communlye the gretter part in a 
multitude be not like wyse nor like lernide, therfor ye shall 

5 



WILLIAM WARHAM, 

doo well to apointe the nombre off xxx*' persons emongist yow 
off the wisest and best lernide, geuinge to them authoritie to 
deterrayn this matier as thei shall thinke to be accordinge to 
Goddis lawes, as bye my tyme when I was in the assemblie 
hous there, yns tymes past, I haue sene yt like wyse uside in 
diuerse causys. I wolde haue wpytyn to you at this tyme in 
Laten as I haue byn accustomyde yn tymes past, houbeit by 
cause that noo thinge shulde be otherwise interpretide than I 
mean, therefor for this tyme I wryt to you in Englishe, for 
Laten words often tymes mai be otherwise interpretide than 
Englishe words. As touchinge you whiche be my officers in 
that vniuersitie, I trust, and soo straitlie charge you, to siee aU 
things quyetlye orderide ; and in case any divisiones or com- 
motion be made, to se the same to be expresside ande pacified 
as wislye as ye can, and to punishe the doers ther for accord^ 
inglye, which if ye refuse to doo, more inconuenience may 
folow therbye then ye for defaute off experience can consider, 
wher off I wolde be right sorye. At Knowle, the xv* daye of 
March. 

"WUlm. Cantuar." 

The subsequent proceedings of the university in this affair, 
and the de^ce by which the common seal was obtained to the 
judgment and decree so anxiously desired by Henry, are sub- 
jects foreign to this work : they will be found amply detailed 
in Anthony a Wood's Annals, and reflect discredit only on 
those individ'uals who. sacrificed their principles to the hope of 
reward, or to the caprice of their sovereign. This, however, is 
animputatioii which does not attach to the whole body ; a large 
majority of the members were decidedly hostile to the measure, 
they opposed it so long as an opportunity was allowed them of 
recording their opinions ; and were, at last, defeated by a mode 

6 



ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 

of proceeding unauthorized by precedent, and in direct oppo^ 
sition to the statutes of the university. 

To return to Warham: — In the latter end of the year 1515, 
the Archbishop, wearied, probably, with the continual encroach- 
ments of Wolsey, and not unwilling to purchase ease at the ex- 
pense of retirement from all civil promotion, resigned the great 
seal, and from that time confined himself more especially to the 
duties of his ecclesiastical station, as well as the cultivation of 
literature and the society of accomplished scholars. Among his 
most intimate acquaintance of this description was Erasmus, who 
bias left us an account of his domestic habits, which exhibits him 
in a very amiable point of view : " that," says this eminent scho- 
lar, " which enabled him to go through such various cares juid 
employments, was, that no part of his time, nor no degree of 
his attention, was taken up with hunting or gaming, in idle or 
trifling conversation, or in luxury or voluptuousness. Instead 
of any diversions or amusements of this kind, he delighted in 
the reading vof some good author, or in the conversation of some 
learned man. And although he sometimes had prelates, dukes, 
and earls as his guests, he never spent more than an hour at 
dinner. The entertainment which he provided for his friends 
was liberal and splendid, suitable to the dignity of his rank ; 
but he never touched any dainties himself. He seldom tasted 
wine, and when he had attained the age of seventy years, drank 
nothing, for the most part, but a little small beer. But, not- 
withstanding his great temperance and abstemiousness, he 
added to the cheerfulness and festivity of every entertainment 
at which he was present, by the pleasantness of his coun- 
tenance, and the vivacity and agreeableness of his conversation. 
The same sobriety was seen in him after dinner as before. He 
abstained from suppers altogether, unless he happened to have 
any very familiar friends with him, of which number, (says 

7 



WILLIAM WARHAM, 

Erasmus) I was, when he would indeed sit down to table, but 
then could scarcely be said to eat any thing. If that did not 
happen to be the case, he employed the time, by others usually 
appropriated to suppers, in study or devotion. But as he was 
i-emarkably agreeable and facetious in his discourse, but with- 
out biting or buffoonery, so he delighted much in jesting with 
his friends. But scurrility, defamation, or slander, he abhorred, 
and avoided as he would a snake. In this manner did this great 
man make, his days sufficiently long, of the shortness of which 
many complain." 

Such is the portrait of Archbishop Warham, as drawn by one 
who lived with him in habits of the most perfect intimacy ; and 
the character of the prelate, as here given, sufficiently accounts 
for the ease and tranquillity with which, even in those evil days, 
he was permitted to pass the remainder of an innocent and well- 
spent life. . 

He died at a good old age, on Thursday, the twenty-second 
of August, 1532, in the house of his kinsman, William Warham, 
Archdeacon of Canterbury, who resided at St. Stephens, near 
that city. On the 26th, the body was removed to St. Stephen's 
Church, "where was every daye divers masses daylye with, 
lyghts burnynge and wax tapers, with a crosse in his hands 
gloved, and over all the pawle, where it remayned untill the ninth 
day of Septembre ;" in the afternoon of that day it was removed 
.to Christ Church, in Canterbury, where, according to the cer- 
tificate in the office of arms, on the following day, " by eight of 
the clocke, everye man was readie in the churche, when began 
the masse of our Ladie. The sermonde and thother ceremonyes 
beinge done, the mourners with other went in good order to the 
pallace to dynner. They beinge gone, the corps was conveide 
into the martyrdome, where as he had prepared a goodlye, 
chappell and sepulture, where he was buryed: when, being 
buryed, the head officers brake theyr staves of theyr offices, and 

8 



ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 

cast them into the sepulture. AH these thinges being done, 
every man went into the palace, where was preparied a sump- 
tuous dynner." 

Bishop Warham not only erected the chapel in which his 
body reposes, but laid out the immense sum of thirty thousand 
pounds in repairing and adorning the houses belonging to his 
see. He was indeed so careless of wealth, otherwise than as a 
means of dispensing his bounty, and providing for the necessary 
expenses of his exalted situation, that he is related to have had 
only thirty pounds in his steward's hands a short time previous 
to his decease ; and when, upon inquiry, he found his coffers 
at so low an ebb, merely remarked. Satis viatici in ccelum. 
Archbishop Sancroft, who collected the mottoes of eminent 
persons, has preserved Warham's ; it was, Auxilium meum a Do- 
mino, a sentiment in perfect accordance with the prelate's cha- 
racter and conduct to the last. 



The monuments of Archbishops Warham and Peckham, al- 
though erected at very different periods, are so contiguous to 
each other, that it has been deemed expedient to include them 
in the same plate. They are placed against the wall, under the 
great window which terminates the north transept of Canter- 
bury Cathedral. The monument of Warham is of stone, beau- 
tifully wrought, and, having been recently cleaned and repaired, ' 
has an extremely elegfant effect. The effigy, which is also of 
stone, represents the prelate in his pontifical habit, with a rich 
mitre on his head, and his hands joined in the attitude of prayer ; 
under his right arm is the pastoral crosier, surmounted by a 
cross of extremely rich workmanship ; his head rests on a 
double cushion, supported on each side by an angel, and at his 
feet are two priests, kneeling, each having an open missal in 
his hands. The adjoining monument of Archbishop Peckham 

9 



WILLIAM WARHAM, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 

consists of an altar tomb of grey, or Sussex marble, on which 
reposes the effigy carved in oak, now greatly mutilated, the 
whole surmounted by an enriched arch, within a pediment, re- 
taining all its original colours. This monument, though much 
less brilliaiiit than many others in the Cathedral of a later date, 
is not surpassed by any of them in the merit of the design, and 
the beauty with which the decorative part is executed. 

10 



JOHN PECKHAM, 

ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 

Ob. 1292. 
monument at canterbury. 

Aechbishop Peckham was a native of Sussex, but born of 
parents so obscure, that tradition has afforded no clue to their 
names or place of residence. His first education was received 
in the abbey of Lewes, where he soon gave promise of superior 
ability, and displayed so great a taste for literature, that he 
was deemed worthy of being sent to the university. Having 
passed through the usual course of academical instruction at 
Oxford, he was appointed provincial of the order of Franciscans, 
or Friers Minors, and then, as the custom was, proceeded to 
Paris, in order to complete his studies in divinity. From Paris 
he went to Lyons, at that time esteemed the first school in Eu- 
rope for the canon law ; a branch of knowledge deemed indis- 
pensible to form a perfect theologian. Here he conducted him- 
self with so great credit, that he was chosen canon or prebendary 
of the cathedral, a situation which, besides the rank it gave him, 
afforded him also authority and means to travel still further, in 
order to perfect his knowledge in the canon law ; and, accord- 
ingly, he visited all the universities in Italy, till, at length, he 
came to Rome. 

1 



JOHN PECKHAM, 

Peckham's merits were not of a nature to be overlooked at 
the papal court. Independently of the common learning of the 
schools, and his more especial proficiency in divinity and the 
canon law, his attainments in polite literature and his powers of 
composition were far beyond the usual standard of his contem- 
poraries ; nor was he the less acceptable from possessing a per- 
son comely, graceful, and commanding. He was, after a short 
space, constituted auditor or chief judge in the papal palace, 
in which situation he remained, till the removal of Archbishop 
Kilwardby to the cardinalship of Hostia occasioned a vacancy 
in the see of Canterbury, which was bestowed by the Pope 
upon Peckham, much to the dismay of the monks of Canter- 
bury, who, with King Edward's sanction, had already elected 
Bishop Burnell, at that time Chancellor of England. The pa- 
pal authority was not, however, to be resisted, and on the first 
day of March, 1278-9, Peckham was consecrated, and in the 
following October inthronized with great magnificence. 

Archbishop Peckham continued in the see of Canterbury for 
rather more than thirteen years, during which time he appears 
to have acted with much discretion and no small zeal. In his 
first year he summoned a convocation at Lambeth, and made 
strict inquiry into the state of all the churches in his province ; 
he then went in person through every diocese within his juris- 
diction, taking great pains to correct all abuses, to enforce resi- 
dence among his, clergy, and to punish misconduct wherever it 
might be found : " a worthy man he was in his place, (says 
Fuller) who neither feared the laitie, nor flattered the clergy, 
impartially imposing on both, if appearing peccant, most severe 
pennance." He had a great aversion to pluralities, and even 
refused to consecrate some bishops, against whom there was no 
other exception ; his own practice, however, in this respect 
was hardly consistent with such severity, for he continued to 

2 



ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY. 

hold his prebend of Lyons with the see of Canterbury, and 
when remonstrated with for so doing, replied, " that the time 
might come, when, if driven out of England, he should have no 
other home to retire to." 

Archbishop Peckham was a most implacable enemy to the 
Jews, and commanded all their synagogues within his jurisdic- 
tion to be razed to the ground. The authority of the King 
prevented this edict from being completely executed, and these 
miserable people were permitted to have one house, and one 
only, throughout the wide province of Canterbury, in which to 
exercise their religion. Never was this unfortunate race more 
hardly dealt with, than during this and the preceding reigns ; 
but the most deliberate wrong ever done them was, perhaps, a 
pretended favour granted to them by King Henry the Third, 
who first permitted them to expend an immense sura on a new 
synagogue, and then insisted upon their dedicating it to the 
Virgin Mary ! 

Peckham was not only a learned man, but a very volumi- 
nous writer. A list of his treatises will be found in Bishop 
Tanner's very useful and accurate compilation, the " Biblio- 
theca Britannico-Hibernica," and many of his archiepiscopal 
ordinances and letters are printed in the " Concilia." Besides 
these, there are " Divinarum Sententiarum Librorum Biblie ad 
certos titulos redacte CoUectarium," a sort of digested con- 
cordance to the Bible, printed at Paris, in 1513 ; and a treatise 
entitled, " Perspectiva communis," first printed at Nuremberg, 
in 1542, and again at Cologne, in 1592. It was afterwards 
translated into Italian, with some additions, by Gallucci, and 
printed at Venice, we believe, in 1593. 

He died in 1492, according to a MS. register of the church 
of Canterbury, quoted by Wharton in his "Anglia Sacra," at 
Mortlake; but as most other writers have it, at Canterbury: nor 

3 



JOHN PECKHAM, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 

are the ecclesiastical authorities altogether agreed as to t 
exact day of his diecease. All, however, coincide in sayic 
that he was buried in his own cathedral, nor is there t 
slightest reason to doubt that the monument now giyen w 
the one erected to his memory. 

4 



i r f 




X^cawn Ytf^ E Bloie 



Hnf^rav^^rL by Jl-e'Esn. 



in tike Collegiate '("Inatircli of QnrlstcliLTLiurflii. 




ii 



I'uhll^h'Ul.Ma^- /^-f<'' lySard-iru/ ik- I.tpar.-l.-EaV MjZlE.ist.I-tm^lon.. 



MARGARET PLANTAGENET, 

COUNTESS OF SALISBURY. 
1473—1541. 

MONUMENT AT CHRIST-CHURCH, IN HAMPSHIRE. 

Margaret Plantagenet, daughter of George Duke of Clarence, 
grand-daughter on her mother's side to Richard Neville, Earl of 
Warwick, and niece to King Edward the Fourth, was born at 
Farleigh Castle, in Wiltshire, and according to the Chronicle of 
Tewkesbury, quoted by Dugdale, on the fourteenth day of August 
1473*. She was married to Sir Richard Pole Knight, a person 
of high character, and of respectable birth, his father being Sir 
Geoffrey Pole, a knight of an old family in Wales. Sir Richard 
Pole distinguished himself by his valour in the Scottish wars 
during the reign of Henry the Seventh, and was elected Knight 
of the Garter, and appointed chamberlain to Prince Arthur, 
being present in that capacity at the marriage of the young 
Prince with Catherine of Arragon. It is probable that he died 
early in the reign of Henry the Eighth, since, in the fifth year 
of that monarch, she was restored to the name, state, title, ho- 
nour, and dignity of Countess of Salisbury, by act of Parliament, 
describing herself in her petition to the King as his " faithful 
subject and daily oratrice Margaret Pole late wife of Richard 



* " Monasticon Anglicanum," i. 1 60. A writer in the " Antiquarian Reper- 
tory," toI. iv, p. 240, says about 1471, but without giving any autliority. 

1 



MARGARET PLANTAGENET, 

Pole knight and sister and heir of blood unto Edward late Earl 
of Warwicke and Salesburye, son of Isabell daughter and heir of 
Richard late Earl of Salesburie, son and heir to Alice late Countess 
of Salesburie, to which Isabell your said oratrice is daughter and 
heir." At the same time her eldest son Henry had a special 
livery of the lands of his inheritance, and was afterwards created 
Lord Montague. Her other children were Reginald, better 
known as Cardinal Pole, Geoffry, and Arthur, and one daughter, 
Ursula, married to Henry Lord Stafford, son of Edward Duke 
of Buckingham. 

The favour shown by Henry the Eighth to the Countess of 
Salisbury was of short duration. She was warmly attached to 
the Roman Catholic religion, and she was the mother of the 
Cardinal, both very sufficient reasons for Henry's displeasure, at 
a period when the church of Rome was an object of his peculiar 
hatred. It is probable too that Margaret was uncompromising 
and imprudent, but there still appears to have been no real 
ground for the severity which she experienced. From Lord 
Herbert's account, it would seem that the finding of certain 
Pope's bulls in her possession, the act of corresponding with her 
son Reginald, and her dislike to the introduction of the Scrip- 
tures in the vulgar tongue, were her chief enormities, and surely 
much less could not have been expected from a rigid Romanist. 
" In this parliament also (1539) Margaret Countesse of Salisbury 
(being daughter of George Duke of Clarence and mother of car- 
dinall Pole) as also the cardinal himself, and Gertrude wife to 
the late marquesse of Exceter, Sir Adrian Fortescue, and Thomas 
Dingley Knight of St. John?s, were attainted of treason. Against 
Margaret and Gertrude it was alledged that they were complices 
with the marquesse of Exceter and other traitors. Our records 
also tell us, that certain Buls granted by the Bishop of Rome 
were found at Cowdrey, being then, as I take it, the countesse 
of Salisbury's house, and that the parson of Warblington con- 



COUNTESS OF SALISBURY. 

veigh'd letters for her to her son the cardinal!, and that she 
forbad all her tenants to have the New Testament in English, or 
any other new book the king had priviledged. But whatsoever 
the cause was (for our parliament records are short in the parti- 
culars) I finde by a letter from the Earl of Southampton and 
Bishop of Ely to Cromwell, that, though she were seventy yeers 
old, her behaviour yet was masculine and vehement, and that she 
would confesse nothing." Her behaviour at her execution was 
equally intrepid. Henry did not put her to death immediately ; 
she was confined in the Tower perhaps with an intention of being 
spared, but on the Yorkshire insurrection breaking forth two 
years after, and the Cardinal being considered as one of the prin- 
cipal instigators of that attempt, orders were given for her exe- 
cution. Her conduct upon the occasion cannot be better told 
than in the words of our noble author*. " The old lady being 
brought to the scaffold, set up in the Tower, was commanded to 
lay her head on the block, but she (as a person of great quality 
assured mee) refused, saying, ' So should traitors do, and I am 
none.' Neither did it serve, that the executioner told her it was 
the fashion ; so turning her gray head every way, shee bid him, 
' if he would have her head, to get it as he could' So that he 
was constrained to fetch it off slovenly" 

Thus fell this high born and illustrious lady, and with her 
ended the race of Plantagenet. 

Of her possessions at the time of her decease there is a list 
preserved by Dugdale in his " Baronage," vol. ii. p. 292, which 
gives us a very magnificent idea of her wealth and influence. 
She had estates in the counties of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, 
Dorset, Southampton, Wilts, Bucks, Hertford, Essex, and Berks ; 
in the city of London ; in Northamptonshire ; in Suffolk ; in York- 



* Lord Herbert's Life of HsDry VIII. p. 468. 
3 



MARGARET PLANTAGENET, 

shire, and in Monmouthshire ; altogether amounting to upwards 
of two thousand pounds, an immense 'sum in those days. One 
of her largest manors was that of Christ Church, where she pro- 
bably resided, and whese it is certain she prepared the splendid 
chapel we are now consideiing for her burial-place : it is not so 
certain that her remains were deposited according to her inten- 
tion. Among the Cotton MSS.* is a letter from the commis- 
sioners to Cromwell, giving an account of the surrender of the 
late priory of Christ Church, Twineham ; in it occurs the fol- 
lowing passage respecting the beautiful architectural specimen 
before us : — " In thys churche we founde a chaple and monumet 
curiosly made of Cane stone, p'paryd by the late mother of 
Raynolde Pole for herre buriall, wiche we have causyd to be de- 
facyd, and all the armys and badgis clerly to be delete." It 
is to be regretted that this exquisite chapel did not escape the 
vigilance of Henry's emissaries, since it is not only singularly rich 
and beautiful in all its details, but, if we except the ravages made 
by the hand of the destroyer, in a state of extraordinary preserva- 
tion. The accompanying plate represents the side towards the 
choir, which will be better understood by a reference to the en- 
graving than by any description. The opposite side differs from 
this, inasmuch as the roof of the side aisle is much lower ; and 
the floor also being seven feet at least below the floor of the choir, 
has rendered it in the first place impossible to carry the monu- 
ment on this side to an equal height, and an additional base has 
been requisite to bring it down to the ground. This base consists 
of a range of beautiful canopies, with shields and scroll work in the 
spandrills ; beneath which is a row of quatrefoils, terminating with 
rich mouldings, and supported by pedestals of rich Gothic tracery : 
above the range of canopies are three windows, corresponding with 



* Cleop. E. 4. fol. 267. b. 



COUNTESS OF SALISBURY. 

the three windows represented in the plate, and which on this side 
rise up to the groined roof of the side aisle, against which the 
monument terminates. There is also on this side a further- addition 
of a stair of communication with the interior of the chapel, the 
entrance to which is by a door surmounted by a large and rich 
niche ; and at the west end is another rich niche, within which 
is inserted a blue marble slab, inscribed to the memory of the 
late Right Hon. George Rose. The interior of the chapel is 
highly decorated, particularly the roof, which is divided into three 
compartments, the centres of each being highly enriched. That 
on the western side with a shield charged with a saltire, and 
surrounded by the garter : the supporters defaced. The eastern 
contains also a shield, the bearing and supporters defaced j the 
motto underneath, " spes mea in deo est," remains. The centre 
compartment is adorned with a religious subject, but this is so 
much defaced as to be unintelligible. The floor at the east end 
is raised for an altar, now destroyed, and above the end is finished 
with three rich canopies, under each of which is a shield ; that 
on the south side enriched with the garter, the others are 
altogether defaced. 

5 







sM 



i^m 






|C 






SIR ANTHONY BROWNE. 

1500—1548. 

MONUMENT AT BATTLE ABBEY. 

Anthony Bbowne was the eldest son of Sir Anthony Brow»e, 
Knight, standard-bearer to King Henry the Seventh, governor 
of Queenborough, and subsequently appointed lieutenant of the 
castle of Calais. He was knighted for his gallant behaviour at 
the battle of Newark 1487, and seems to have been highly re- 
garded by his sovereign for his prudence and loyalty as well as 
vigilance and activity. He died before the 19th of November 
1506, in which year his will was proved, leaving a widow Lucy, 
the mother of the subject of the present notice, who was fourth 
daughter and co-heiress of John Neville, Marquis Montacute, 
and widow of Sir Thomas FitzwiUiams of Aldwarke in Yorkshire : 
this lady died, according to a manuscript pedigree of the Brownes, 
for we do not remember to have seen the date of her death re- 
corded in any printed account, " at the parke and manour of 
Bagshott 25 Hen. VIH. ^d was buried at Bishara abby, the 
31st of march 1534." 

Anthony Browne was bom on the twenty-ninth of June, 1500 : 
we find him entering upon pubHc life at an early period, since, 
in the fourteenth of Henry the Eighth, he was with the Earl of 
Surrey, then Lord High Admiral, at the time he conveyed the 
Emperor Charies the First from that port to Biscay, and he was 

1 



SIR ANTHONY BROWNE. 

knighted, with several other young men of family* who had 
distinguished themselves by their valour, in the assault and 
capture of Morlaix in Britanny. Two years after, he occurs, as 
one of the esquires of the King's household, among the chal- 
lengers in feats of arms against the feast of Christmas, before the 
King at Greenwich ; and in 1525 he was appointed Lieutenant of 
the Isle of Man, and the other islands its dependencies, during 
the minority of the Earl of Derby. In 1527 (19 Henry VIII.) 
he, together with Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle, and others, 
were sent ambassadors to Francis the First, King of France, to 
invest him with the ensigns of the Garter, and at the same time 
to take his oath that he should not violate the league made with 
King Henry. In the twenty-fourth of the same King, he was 
again sent into France with the Duke of Norfolk, the Lord 
Rochford (brother to Queen Anne Boleyn), and Sir William 
Paulet, comptroller of the household, on an embassy to the King, 
to accompany his Majesty to Nice, and there he was also ap- 
pointed to commune with the Pope on the subject of his delay 
in Henry's divorce. 

In the 30th of Henry VIII. he obtained a grant of a very im- 
portant office ; this was the mastership of the horse, to which he 
was appointed, with a yearly fee of forty pounds for his service, 
and the iappointment was confirmed to him for life in the next 
year. It would appear, that at this period he was generally con- 
sidered a fit subject for the high honour of the Garter : from 
Anstis's register, he seems to have been put in nomination at 
several elections, and was finally admitted, the Knights being 



* When the lord admerall had woone the towne of Morleis, he called to him 
certeine esquiers and made them knights^ as sir Francis Brian^ sir Anthonie Browne, 
sir Richard Cornewall, sir Thomas Moore, sir Giles Hussie, sir John Russell, sir 
John Reinsfordj'sir George Cobham, sir John Cornewallis, Sir Edward Rigleie and 
diuerse other; Holinshed, p. 874. 

2 



SIR ANTHONY BROWNE. 

unanimous in their selection, on the twenty-third of April, and 
installed on the ninth of May fallowing, in 1540. 

In the thirty-fourth of Henry VIII. he was sent, together with 
the Earls of Shrewsbury, Derby, Cumberland, Surrey, Hertford, 
Rutland, and other soldiers of high rank, under the command 
of the Duke of Norfolk, in the expedition into Scotland. The 
result of this armament is too well related by Herbert and other 
historians of that period, to require farther mention in this place ; 
but it may be stated that his name occurs in the Burleigh Papers . 
affixed to a great number of important documents, as one of the 
council of the North at this time, an additional proof, had any 
been wanting, of the estimation in which he was held by his 
sovereign. 

In the thirty-sixth year of Henry, he was at the memorable 
siege of Boulogne, and was chosen, with the Duke of Suffolk, to 
confer with the ambassadors from the French monarch on the 
subject of a general peace. Sir Anthony appears to have consi- 
dered this as the most brilliant epoch of his life. On the walls 
of his mansion-house, at Cowdray in Sussex, were paintings in 
oO, on stucco, representing King Henrjr's progress to Boulogne. 
A very minute description of these valuable works of art will be 
found in the third volume of the " Archaeologia ;" the paintings 
themselves have unhappily perished, but it seems that he was 
careful to omit no circumstance that might recofrd the part he 
bore on this splendid occasion. His own station in the camp is 
precisely pointed out, and he is seen receiving the mdmarch on 
the height between Escales and Peuplingne. In another painting 
of a similar description, he was represented in attendance upon 
King Edward during his procession fi:om the Tower of London 
on the day before that of the coronation. 

In the thirty-seventh of Henry he was joined in a commission 
with the Lord Chancellor Wriothesley, the Earl of Arundel, and 
the Lord St. John, chamberlain of the household, to levy, arm, 

3 



SIR ANTHONY BROWNE. 

and muster all men capable of bearing arms in the several counties 
of Surrey, Sussex, Southampton, Wilts, Oxford, and Berks. It 
is not improbable he had possessions in all these counties ; for 
no one was more liberally rewarded by his royal master out of 
the spoils of the religious houses than Sir Anthony Browne. In 
Surrey alone he had grants of Pirbright in Woking, Great Bych- 
ney, East Clandon, Bagshot bailiwick, the manor of Worplesdon, 
and the entire site of St. Mary Overy. Newcourt finds that he 
had also the manor of Rumwell or Romewell in Essex, but sup- 
poses that he never took possession of it, the necessary papers 
not having gone through all the offices before Henry's decease *. 

At the seat of Charles Browne Mostyn, Esq. at Kiddington, 
in Oxfordshire, is a very curious and interesting portrait of Sir 
• Anthony Browne, with the following inscription, of which we 
give a faithful copy from the original, as it comprises the re- 
mainder of his history : 

" Sir Antony Browne lyvinge was at one tyme and to his 
deathe master of the horse to kinge Henry the eyght, and after 
to kinge Edward the sixthe : Captayne of bothe theyr mayestyes 
gentilmen pentioners, cheif standerd bearer of Ingland ; iustice 
in oyer of al.theyre forestes, parkes and chases beyond the river 
of Trent northward ; Uevtehant of the forest of Wenser, Wolmar, 
and Ashdowne, with dyvers parkes and chases Southwarde : one 
of the executers to kinge Henry the eyght ; one of the maiestes 
honorable privey covnsel, and knight and companion of the most 
noble order of the garter. 

" He ended hys lyfe the sixthe of May in the seconde yere of 
kynge Edward the syxthe 1548 at Byflet howse in Surey by him 



* " Anthony Browne one of the councell to Hen. 8 by king Henryes will gott a 
legacy of 300 lbs. for his former seruice, and by king Hen. the 8 his order had as 
his share of abby lands Battle abby in Sussex enioyed by his heyre males io a 
direct line to this day." MS. Rawl. in the Bodleian Ixxiii. 151. 

4 



SIR ANTHONY BROWNE. 

bvylded, and lyeth bvvryed at Battell in Svssex by dame Alice 
hys fyrst wyfe, where he began a statly howse *, sence preceded 
in by his sonne and heyer Anthony vicecovnt Mowntsegve, 
cheefe standard bearer of England, lievtenavnt of the forrest of 
Wyndsor, wyth other parkes : one of qvene Maryes honorable 
privey covncell and knight and companyon of the. most noble 
order of the garter. He had by dame Alice dawter to syr John 
Gage knyght of the noble order of the garter, controwler to 



* Warton says that Cowdray-house was the most beautiful and genuine model 
remaining of a magnificent mansion in the reign of Henry the Eighth. As this 
fine old specimen no longer exists, it may not be amiss to preserve the antiquary's 
description of it. (History of Kiddington, 2nd edit. p. 41.) " We enter a spacious 
and lofty quadrangle built of stone, through a stately Gothic tower with four light 
angular turrets. The roof of the gateway, or portico, is a fine piece of old fret-work. 
There is a venerable old hall, but the sides have been improperly painted, and are 
charged with other ornaments too modern for its noble oak-raftered roof, and a high 
range of roomy Gothic windows. Opposite the screen is the arched portal of the 
buttery. Adjoining to the hall is a dining-room, original, the walls painted all 
over, as was antiently the mode, soon after the beginning of the reign of Edward 
the sixth, chiefly with histories, out of all perspective, of Henry the eighth. The 
roof is flat, in compartments. A gallery, with window recesses, or oriels, occupies 
one whole side of the quadrangular court. A gallery on the opposite side, of equal 
dimensions, has given way to modern convenience, and is converted into bed- 
chambers. Here are innumerable curious pictures, chiefly portraits, by Holbein, 
Vandyke, Dobson, &c. Among others are two pieces by Julio Romano, Assemblies 
of the Gods, in a great style. In the apartments, the round tops of the windows 
have been injudiciously made flat. This hurts the character of the building on the 
outside. In the center of the court is a magnificent old fountain, with much 
imagery in brass, and a variety of devices for spouting water. On the top of the 
Hall is an original Louver, lantern, or cupola, adorned with a profusion of vanes. 
The Chapel, running at right angles to the Hall, terminates in the garden with 
three large Gothic windows." This magnificent pile was .destroyed by fire in 1793, 
to the regret of every admirer of antiquities and art : the reader will find an eccen- 
tric, but an interesting mention of this place after the sad catastrophe, by the late 
Mr. Carter the architect, in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1 802, in which publica- 
tion are two views of it, one in its best, the other in its fallen days. 

5 



SIR ANTHONY BROWNE. 

kynge Henry the eyght, and chavncellor of his dowtchy of Lan- 
caster, and after lord chamberlayne to qvene Mary, constable of 
the tower of London, and one of theyre honorable privey covn- 
cell, seaven sonnes, Anthonye of his proper name, Willyam, 
Henry, Francis, Thomas, George and Henry Browne. He had 
also by her, thre dawghters, Mary, Mabell, and Lucy. His 
second and last wyfe was the lady Elyzabeth Garret after covntes 
of Lyncolne and one of the dawghters of Gerrald erle of Kyldare*, 
by whoe he had two sonnes Edward and Thomas whych dyed 
bothe in theyre infancie." 

The following historical document will, we doubt not, be very 
acceptable to our antiquarian readers. It is transcribed from a 
MS. in the Sloane collection (No. I786, Art. xix.), a volume con- 
taining miscellaneous letters and papers chiefly in the time of 
Elizabeth and James. We do not remember to have met with it 
in print. 

" The examinacon of S'' Anthony Browne touching the La: Maries sub- 
mission to kinge Henry the 8* her Father. 

" S'' Anthony Browne knight sworne and examined saith that he neuer since 
the kings highnes and the dowager for their matremony was bruted thought 
the same lawfuU forasmuch as shee was his brothers wife before. 

" Item he saith that Mf Car ewe shewed him lately that he hath Received 
a Ire from the La: Marie as he supposed and therevppo declared that M''. 
Secretary had written a letter vnto her adviseing her to submitt herselfe to 
the Kinge And shewed him that shee would soe doo as he vnderstood where- 
vppon the said S"" Anthony praid god to give her grace soe to doe. 

" Wherevnto the said M'' Car.ew said. If shee doe not submitt her selfe 
shee is vndon for the king is a mercifull Prince and will haue pittie of her. 
If shee will now leave her obstinacie and cast not her selfe away. 



* She was the Fair Geraldine of Lord Surrey, being daughter to the Earl of 
Kildare by Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Grey, Marquis of Dorset. She was 
born in 1528, and died in March 1589, being then the widow (having been third 
wife) of Edward Clinton, Earl of Lincoln. 

6 



SIR ANTHONY BROWNE. 

" Item he saith that M^ Russell tould him that he heaxd say that in case 
shee would foUowe the kings pleasure shee should be heire apparent at which 
time being others present whom he now Remembreth not, one of them said 
what meane you by the heire apparent Wherevnto it was answeared that 
shee should be Reputed in such case to his highnes vnless his Grace should 
haue Issue of his bodie by the Queen that now is sonne or Daughter. 

" Item he saith that when M'' Trer [Treasurer?] was last at home he 
went to Guildford to him of whom the said Mr Trer asked what newes were 
at Court wherevnto he answeared that he knewe noe newes saueing onely 
M'' Russell tould him he heard say the Ladie Mary should be made heire 
apparent to the king if she would submitt herselfe and follow his pleasure 
which the said Mr. Trer prayed to god shee might doe. 

" Item he saith that M-- Carew sent a letter to the ladle Mary which Ire 
hee shewed before to this deponent & M^ Trer the effect thereof was to 
advise and Covmcell her in any wise to submitt her selfe to the kinge a^d to 
Follow such Counsell as by M'' Secretary's lef es should be declared vnto her 
touching the same neuertheles whether he sent this lere forth or noe he 
knoweth not. 

" Item he saith that since Mr. Trers comeing to the Court he hath de- 
maunded of him whether the ladie Marie should bee heire apparent or noe 
to whom hee hath Answeared that in Case shee would submitt her selfe, and 
bee obedient as shee ought to bee hee trusted shee would, and if shee will 
not be obedient vhto his grace I would quoth hee that her head were from 
her shoulders that I might tosse it here with my feete & soe put his foote 
forward spurneing the Russhes. 

" Item examined why hee should haue such affection to the said Ladie 
Marie saith that hee was onely moued therevnto for the loue he beareth to 
the king for hee neuer Receaued lef e message Token or Recomendacons from 
her nor hath sent her any. 

« Item examined whether in case it had pleased god to call the kinge to 
his mercie (which god defend) leaueing the ladie Ehzabeth in the degree of 
Princes hee would haue adheared to her or advanced the ladie Marye hee 
saith that in such case he would haue died with the ladie Elizabeth according 
to the lawes of the land. 

« Item he said he thought the ladie Mary to be a fitt person to be 
an heire apparent and to succeed in Case the kings highness should not 
Chance to haue issue of his bodie by the Queene that now is wch god send 

7 



SIR ANTHONY BROWNE. 

him shortly, for that the said ladie Mary was borne in bona fide which 
Tearm of bona fide as he hath heard often as well before the makeinge of 
the lawe for the kings succession as since — soe Remembreth not presently of 
whom he hath heard the same — ^but will endeauour him selfe to Remember 
where he hath heard it and the same declare accordingly. 

" Item examined whether he hath had any priuate Conferrepce with any 
speciall man or any other man or woman not specified touching the state of 
y'^ said Ladie Mary, he answeareth that diuerse persons whose names he I'e- 
membreth not, haue asked how shee should doe to whom he answeared that 
he knew not saying to some that he marveyled the would aske him such 
questions but he saith that he neuer had any priuate Conferrence with any 
man touching speciall matter other then is expressed. 

" Item hee being examined whether hee hath at any time heard the name 
of bona fides parentum of, Doctor Woolman doctor Bell or D-. Knight 
saith nay. 

" Item being examined whether he knoweth of any Conventicle devised or 
set forth by any pson or persons for the advancem* of the said ladie Marie 
Answeareth none otherwise than is before declared. 

" ANTHONY BROWNE." 

The monument of Sir Anthony Browne and his Lady stands 
on the north side of the chancel of Battle Church. It is entirely 
of alabaster, stands clear, and the opposite sides and ends of the 
tomb are finished exactly to correspond. The following arms 
are sculptured on the various shields. In the centre of the op- 
posite sides, and at each end on a shield within a garter : — 
1st, S. a bend G. charged with 3 lions passant guardant of 
the 1st ; 2d, a lion rampant or, quartering or a fret ; 3d, a saltire 
G. over all a label of 3 points ; 4th, G. 3 fusils in fesse ; 5th, as 
2d ; 6th, as 1st ; 7th, a spread eagle or ; 8tb, as 3d ; 9th, three 
lions passant guardant ; 10th, a saltire; 11th, across; 12th, or 
on a canton, a wheel ; 13th, a saltire ; 14th, a lion rampant ; 
15th, a fesse between 3 leopards' heads or ; l6th, a fesse dancette 
sab. impaling quarterly a saltire and sun. Each of the side shields 
is occupied by the same quartering of a saltire and sun ; but the 

8 



SIR ANTHONY BROWNE. 

colors are generally so much obliterated as to render it im- 
possible to specify them exactly. Sir Anthony is represented in 
rich plate armour, his head resting on a helmet originally sur- 
mounted by a crest now broken away. Hair short and curling ; 
his sword on the left, his dagger on the right, side, He wears the 
mantle of the order of the Garter. On his left shoulder is the 
badge ; round his neck the collar ; from which is suspended the 
george ; and round his left leg the garter. His feet rest against 
a stag chained with a ducal coronet round its neck. His lady is 
distinguished by having a rich canopy over her head ; she is re- 
. presented in a rich head dress, mantle and loose robe falling over 
her feet, which rest against a dog. The hands of both figures 
are broken away, but they have evidently been joined as in 
prayer, and they appear to have been originally painted and gilt. 
From small portions remaining on the mantle of the lady it seems 
probable that it was emblazoned with her arms. Round the ledge 
of the slab on which the figures are placed is the following in- 
scription : 

" f^ere Uetfic tjc JRgsJte j&onorablt Sit ^Cntons ISrofene, IKttggj&t of tje ffiatterc, 
0LmeT of tj^e IS;sng« Ms\titti ^otcsi anb one of t|^» j^onorade ^titie ^ouncel 

of our moat Drali Soberagne Sortie anl) bit e IKsng ?l^enra tje eagjt avit) 1)amt 

aits W tosff ioW^mii ^tcem tj&e 31 Dag of -Ptartj&e, a" Dni 1540. atiD tje ssaaU 

Sir antons Htcegii) tje Dag of a° tni on toj&ofe sotolg anil all 

@Jri«t«n 35&U {jabe raercg amen." 

A modern partition, dividing the chancel from a chapel, is 
carried so close to the north side of this monument as to render 
that side almost inaccessible. 

The insertion of the date of the death of the lady, and the 
blank left for that of Sir Anthony, prove this monument to have 
been erected by the latter, probably soon, after the death of his 
consort ;, and it is certainly a valuable example with which to 
close our series, inasmuch as it exhibits, in the decorative part of 
that portion of the tomb and the canopy over the lady's head, one 

9 



SIR ANTHONY BROWNE. 

of the earliest examples of a complete change of style, in which 
nothing of Gothic remains, whilst the figures themselves are 
faithful representations of the costume of the period, showing 
that in this respect no corresponding change had taken place. 
There is also an extraordinary mixture of cumbrous and in- 
elegant, as well as of beautiful, execution, in the detail of the 
ornamental part of the tomb, from which we might be led to infer 
that the sculptor had not acquired a perfect knowledge of the 
new style of art in which he was employed. 

10 



\\ -tv